In each of these four episodes, the intensity of mood and symptoms defining bipolar disorder vary. Proper diagnosis of bipolar disorder needs a close consideration of the symptoms presented by the patient because each of the episodes makes patients behave differently (Doruk et al, 2014). Moreover, different forms of treatment are appropriate for each episode. Therefore, proper diagnosis is of critical significance if a medical practitioner is to make a difference in the life of a patient with bipolar disorder (Fayyazi et al, 2014). This paper will discuss the different manifestations of bipolar disorder, its pathology, the available treatment agents as well as their potential side effects and toxicities.
Pathological studies have sought to highlight the causes of bipolar disorder. In accordance with neuroimaging studies, there is evidence that different parts of the brain exhibit their involvement in the development of bipolar disorder. These include basal ganglia, cerebellar structures, cortical, and limbic. Genetic research has also pinpointed certain defects that contribute to the development of bipolar disorder (Werner, 2014). Evidently, bipolar disorder exhibits a range of symptoms. One of the distinguishing symptoms is the presence of a highly elevated mood in patients. According to diagnosis by different medical practitioners, a characteristic form of euphoria and a high level of excitement define the elevated mood. However, this excitement may include irritability. These symptoms define the manic phase of the bipolar disorder. In addition, individuals with manic bipolar disorder indulge in risky and aggressive behavior and exhibit a high level of thought processing and rapid speech. Their self-esteem is abnormally high, although they may exhibit poor judgments and increased irritation at times (Fayyazi et al, 2014). Some individuals with the manic bipolar disorder exhibit insomnia and register a high sex drive. They are more likely to spend large ...
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