She received a Master’s degree in Medical-Surgical Nursing and Teaching in 1964 at the University of California. In 1971, she was awarded a Doctorate of Nursing Science and Rehabilitation at New York University (Newman, 1994). She completed her graduate studies at New York University from 1971 to 1976. During this time, she worked and taught alongside nursing theorist Martha Rodgers. In 1977, she was the professor in charge of graduate nursing studies at Pennsylvania State. In 1984, she was a nurse theorist at the University of Minnesota and later served as the Director of Nursing at the clinical research center at the University of Tennessee.
Newman is one of the successful female nursing scholars and theorists in the 21st century. She has taught and led research activities in several institutions. Her education achievements serve as a challenge to nursing students in the university. The purpose of the theory is to present the relationship between individual consciousness and health conditions.
• Expanding Consciousness
• Pattern recognition
Definition of concepts
a. Consciousness is the information capacity of the system and its ability to interact with the environment. Consciousness does not cover only the cognitive and affective awareness but includes the interconnectedness of the living system (Endo, 2004). Expanding consciousness is becoming aware of oneself, finding meaning in life, and reaching new levels of connectedness with other populace and the globe. Pattern is information that presents the whole, creates understanding of the meaning of the whole, and relationships at once. Coming in touch with one’s person helps become aware of the other persons pattern, which is called pattern recognition. Transformation is a change that occurs at once rather than gradually in a linear fashion. Movement is a reflection of consciousness and person conveys self awareness through the movement from posture, language, and body (Newman, 1994). Time is a function of movement and a measurement of consciousness that centers primarily on the perceived duration. . Space is the three-dimensional expanse where all matter exists. Rationale Statements and Propositions Some individuals suffer from chronic diseases and other disabilities that cannot be separated from their health issues. Nurses view such individuals as those faced with uncertainty, debilitation, loss, and death in the long run (Picard, Jones and Newman, 2005). Structure Newman begins by stating and defining concepts used in the theory. She then states the propositions and assumptions made in the theory. The paradigm shift is them stated by explaining the shift from instrumental view to relational view. The meta-paradigm shows the relationship between the person, environment, health, and nursing. The theory assumes that: Health encompasses conditions that are referred to as illness or pathology. Pathological conditions can act as a manifestation of the total pattern of the person. The pattern that manifests itself as pathology exists prior to structural or functional changes. Removal of the pathology will not change the pattern of the individual. If the pattern of an individual can only be manifested by becoming ill, then that is the health of that particular individual. Health is an expansion of consciousness. Theory critique Origin and Context Newman conceived the idea of health as expanding consciousness when caring for her who has Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Newman, 1995). Both Newman and her mother experienced alterations in movement, time, space, and consciousness. They also