According to the Nuremburg Code of ethics, using human subjects in clinical research is ethical as long as clinical researchers adhere to various procedures and guidelines to ensure no ethical violations. In order to ensure healthcare practitioners do not routinely ignore ethical considerations, the Nuremberg Code insists human subjects should engage in clinical research voluntarily (US Department of Health & Human Services, 2005). It implies an individual should have free will to make a choice to participate in research, and their choices should be free from fraud, force, deceit, or any other form of coercion. In addition, making appropriate choices requires comprehensive and sufficient knowledge about a particular subject matter involved in research.
For this reason, a healthcare practitioner should inform patients about the purpose, duration, and nature of the experiment. The Code of Ethics insists on patient consent because this provision supports subsequent procedures and provisions of the code. In many cases, human participants consent and participate in research, but in many cases, their choices and decisions are made based on insufficient information (Washington, 2012). For this reason, clinical researchers who ignore the need to obtain consent from human participants in research do not only violate a provision of the code, but also violate it entirely. For this reason, ethical violations in clinical research involving human subject are prevalent today.