This paper focuses majorly on the bariatric surgery as an intervention for the treatment of diabetes in adults.
Bariatric surgery is a consideration for people with type 2 diabetes who have BMI exceeding 35 kg/m². It involves several surgeries on the gastrointestinal tract. These include the gastric banding or transposing, resecting, or bypassing sections of the small intestine. Interestingly, the gastrointestinal tract surgery had originally been developed for the treatment of morbid obesity. Later on, it was employed as a powerful intervention to ameliorate diabetes in severely obese patients by normalizing blood glucose levels. It reduces or completely avoids necessity for medications alongside being a cost-effective approach for the treatment of the disease.
The American Diabetes Association (2014) recommends bariatric surgery consideration especially for adults with BMI 35 kg/m2 and type 2 diabetes. It applies particularly when the diabetes or the associated comorbidities prove to be difficult to manage through lifestyle and pharmacological therapy. An observation has been made that patients who have at a time undergone the bariatric surgery in most cases require lifelong medical monitoring and lifestyle support.
Research has provided evidence related to the glycemic benefits of bariatric surgery patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI 30–35 kg/m2. The evidence has played a significant role in the recommendation of the bariatric surgery. However, there has been criticism that in well-designed controlled trials which have optimal medical and therapy as the comparing factor, the longtime benefits, cost-effectiveness and risks of bariatric surgery in individuals with type 2 diabetes should be reconsidered in further studies.
In terms of the desired normalization of glycemia, studies have shown that Bariatric surgery achieves very close or complete normalization. Buchwald (2009), in a survey carried out on a population of people with type 2 diabetes, ...
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