It has been noted that diabetes mellitus is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which will include congestive heart failure, coronary heart diseases, peripheral artery disease, cardiomyopathy and stroke. The risk of coronary artery diseases and congestive heart failure is relatively high in persons diagnosed with diabetes than in those without. Risk is also increased in patients who suffer from hypertension and dyslipidaemia or in those who smoke cigarettes and use alcohol. People with diabetes have frequent occurrences of hypertension which is a major risk factor for getting a cardiovascular disease. Diabetes mellitus also causes urinary incontinence which is a common problem encountered. It is a indication of primary malfunction of the urinary bladder and urethra that basically causes the patient to pass urine at the wrong place at the wrong time. It causes weakened urethra muscles that will render the patient helpless in controlling their own urine passing. Another urinary incontinence caused by diabetes mellitus is neurogenic bladder which is also called cystopathy. It is reflected as a form of autonomic neuropathy which begins with the damage of the autonomic afferent nerves therefore leaving the motor function unbroken and undamaged but damaging the awareness of bladder fullness which will consequently result in diminished urinary regularity. It is therefore evident that diabetes disrupts the loops for regulation of micturition which will vastly affect the patient’s urinary system by causing urinary dysfunctions of different levels. Studies have also shown that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also have diabetes. It is not evident whether diabetes is a major risk factor in contracting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but it has shown that patients who suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be at a major risk of getting diabetes than those without. The co-existence of these two diseases will put the patient at a high risk of mortality due to inflammation and exacerbation of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This is also heightened to individuals who smoke cigarettes and use alcohol. Diabetes mellitus is also a major cause of hyperglycaemia which is linked to impaired lung function therefore negatively affecting the patient’s respiratory system. Diabetes is also a major factor in integumentary system diseases. Diabetes can leave the skin of a patient predisposed to bacterial and fungal infections. It will affect blood vessels that cause the skin to appear like it has scaly rough patches of skin which usually located on the front part of the patient’s legs. Other integumentary diseases are such as atherosclerosis where the blood vessels of the patient are narrowed which will cause the skin to be hairless and also makes it appear shiny. Diabetes will also cause acanthosis nigricans which is a skin disorder that create a black or brown, dark, thick, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin which is normally found on the folds for instance in the armpits, groin area and folds of the neck. The skin darkening is also evident in the joints of the fingers and toes. Due to the lack of insulin experienced in diabetes mellitus, a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus will be at a higher risk of contracting acanthosis nigricans. Diabetes mellitus also causes damage in nerves which will create a symptom called neuropathy.