It is a common cancer diagnosis in women especially in United States. However, it can occur in both men and women. It is a malignant tumor in the breast. Malignant tumor is part of a group of cancer cells…
ost cases, the onset of breast cancer does not cause pain and has very little noticeable symptoms .When it progresses; some symptoms start to show up including lymph or a small thickening near or in the breast. Other symptoms include change in the size of the breast and nipple discharge. The breast becomes tender or turns inwards and causes skin irritation. Some breasts have some form of dimpling and scaliness.
However having one or more of these symptoms does not necessary mean, that one has breast cancer. Cancerous tumors sometimes invade surrounding tissues and often appear in the liver, bones, brain, or lungs. People should know the symptoms of breast cancer to ensure early diagnosis. Other symptoms include change in skin texture or enlargement of pores or selling of the breast or any shrinkage.
Treatment of breast cancer has different forms that include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy. All these treatments can be used together or individually. It depends on the diagnosis and stage of the cancer .Screening of breast cancer is done at the early stages but diagnosis happens at a later stage when someone has the symptoms as discussed above. Doctors must take into consideration the grade and stage of cancer, general health, and whether a patient has reached menopause. When it comes to surgery it depends on the type of cancer someone has, which is then followed by chemotherapy or biological treatment that also depends on the type of cancer.
According to Andreeva and Pokhrel (2013) Europe is divided into Eastern Europe, Western Europe. Eastern Europe has many economically, and culturally distinct nations that are marked by post communist transitions, detrimental health practices and underfunded prevention measures. Breast cancer cases in Eastern Europe are mostly diagnosed at late stages. Screening of women varies widely; about 57 percent of Hungarian women and 3% of Georgian women were seen to have been examined ...
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(Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words - 1)
“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/745580-breast-cancer.
Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted modern lifestyle of living. It is found that modern ways of living and diet are one of the most important factors that increase the risk for breast cancer in countries with modern way of living.
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
Proceeding age, family history of breast cancer, and extended reproductive phase are the some major aspect related to this disease. Up to 10 percent of breast cancer in western countries like US, is due to strong genetic predisposition (Dixon, p.25). Doctors can detect breast cancer initially after approximately three years after menopause.
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some
Incidents of breast cancer are found more in white women in comparison to Hispanic, Asian or African-American women. The paper aims at exploring associated risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment processes and breast cancer prevention measures.
Several risk factors
numerous research studies regarding neoadjuvant treatment for persons affected by breast cancer, histological treatment effects in the lymph nodes and primary lesions are considerably associated with the diagnosis. Various diverse histological measures are presently employed to
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
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