Although the outbreak ended in 2003, the reoccurrence of the infection is possible because it is a cross species exposure that creates the introduction into the human population and there is little that can be done to fully protect against a new outbreak. Through protocols that provide for rapid information, reporting the illness and preventing its spread can now contribute to protecting the population. The following paper analyses the initial outbreak in 2002 and its spread throughout the world and then explores appropriate protocols for reporting a discovery of the illness within the community. In addition, information on addressing poor air quality environments for respiratory patients is explored to further the examination of influences on respiratory through poor air quality and the modification of treatment during these periods of time. Analysis The Outbreak The origin of the introduction of the illness into the human population was likely from a bat that interacted with an intermediary animal that was then sold in a Chinese food market. The virus is found in the Himalayan palm civet and the raccoon dog which are suspected to get the virus from bats, both having been present at the market that was the origin of the virus and might have either one been responsible for the outbreak into the human population (Shetty, Tang, & Andrews, 2009). The first documented case of the illness occurred in the Guangdong province of China. The illness was identified as coming from a unique Coronavirus that was identified as the etiological origin of the disease that could travel between humans through contact at an efficient rate. A doctor who had been treating patients in the province traveled to Hong Kong and began the outbreak from exposing to the virus those he encountered in the city and at a social gathering. Those he encountered spread the illness into other regions of Hong Kong, Vietnam, Canada and Singapore (see Figure 1). This spread of the illness brought it into the notice of the global community which provided for action that contained the illness within four months of the initial outbreak. (M’ikanatha, 2007). Figure 1 Spread of the SARS Virus from Hong Kong (M’ikanatha, 2007, p. 512) The Epidemiology SARS or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome developed in 2002 in Hong Kong with the disease spreading worldwide causing 916 deaths and over 8,000 known cases. The cause of the outbreak was the Coronavirus which is found in avian and mammal populations and is important for some species, but can cause respiratory tract infections in a variety of more domesticated species, including humans (M'ikanatha, 2007). The illness ran its course from the winter of 2002 until the last reported case in June of 2003. Overall fatality was averaged at about 10.9%, with only 1% occurring in those under 24 and 6% for over the age of 25. It was worse for those over the age of 44 with a 15% rate of fatality and a 50% rate of fatality for those over the age of 65 (World Health Organization (WHO), 2012). M’ikanatha (2007) describes the following factors as unique aspects of the SARS virus: the agent of the disease was novel, the transmission mode of the virus and how to prevent the spread was unknown, the World Health Organization issued a rare global alert, it created population fears that were unique to the time, healthcare workers were the most frequent victims and the
Running Head: RESPIRTAORY DISTRESS: ANALYSIS OF SARS 1 Respiratory Distress: Analysis of SARS Name Class Date Respiratory Distress: Analysis of SARS Introduction The case of SARS is both a testament to modern technology in dealing with disease outbreaks and a case study on how easy it is for a disease to spread throughout the world where modern travel carries it easily from one site to the next…
These advancements have been very helpful but they have also been associated with many disadvantages as well. The pollution of the environment is one such problem created. Air pollution is an environmental issue of concern which is a threat to the environment owing to the ecological alterations that it leads to along with the health effects that it has for the people (Cornell University 2007).
The increase in the number of people has called for increased utilization of resources and fossil fuels for the production of energy. This is owing to the fact that the energy demand of the world has increased greatly with the industrialization and the population rise.
The researcher states that global warming essentially is due to the undertakings of the human beings, the role, impacts and effects of this phenomenon are also discussed. It is described in the essay that the human race has a huge role to play within the stoppage that is needed of this anomaly which has happened for all the wrong reasons.
The movement of populations from low-density to high-density also increased chances of introducing infections such as measles into high-density populations, causing even greater outbreaks due to the large probable numbers of susceptible people. The associated epidemiological indicators of measles were the same in all three studies, regardless of the different places where the outbreak occurred.
Stephen Baird and Mary Annette Rose come from opposing sides of the issue of offshore drilling. There are three main areas in their arguments: temperatures and pressures of subsea oil, effects of weather problems such as hurricanes; and leaks. Baird explained that new technologies today can guarantee and help oil companies’ efforts to prevent disasters (Easton, 2011).
Amongst the sources of organic matter used in bio-fuel production includes starch; sugary plants for instance corn and sugarcane; vegetable oils and animal fats; wood, algae and organic waste amongst many others. Bio-fuels has been an area of environmental concern as it has been sharply linked with rising food prices, drawing mixed reactions from different scholars.
Man has already caused enough pollution to create holes in the protective ozone layer. It is time we need to realize our responsibility towards the health and safety of the environment we live in. This can not be achieved without the development of an attitude towards the
Severe and immediate actions were taken for the control of this disease and within a few months it was brought much under control and the number of effected cases reduced to almost zero. Actions were taken against the countries from which this disease originated and
Ethical dilemma crops up when countries tries to take advantage of a weak measures in nations, mostly developing nations. This chapter focuses on ethical dilemmas and implications of it to managers. The case of exporting batteries to Mexico has
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