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The symptoms associated with the disease were: the presence of fever and rash; diarrhea and vomiting; complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis; and death if not treated promptly (Parker, et al., 2006, Sugerman, et al., 2010, and van den Hof, et al., 2001). Additional tests such as the detection of anti-measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the blood of the patients also confirmed the infection in patients that are under suspicion of carrying the virus. In all three studies, the rate of infection after being exposed to the measles virus ranged from 75% to 94%, with the high rates being attributed to the parents not letting the children receive any vaccinations (Sugerman, et al., 2010). Due to parents choosing not to have their children vaccinated out of fear of the possible adverse effects, this further increased the population’s susceptibility despite the governments’ efforts of providing vaccinations against the disease (Parker, et al., 2006). ...
The 1999-2000 measles outbreak in the Netherlands detected the D6 measles virus strain, the most common strain across Europe, and introduced by a patient asymptomatic to the disease. A year after the outbreak, along with proper vaccination and containment, no other outbreak happened again, which proved the theory of measles not being an endemic in The Netherlands (van den Hof, et al., 2001). Similarly in the cases of measles outbreak in San Diego and two unnamed counties in Indiana and Illinois, respectively, the measles virus was introduced

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when vacationers from Europe harbored the virus and incubated it long enough to introduce an outbreak where some members of the population did not have proper or complete vaccines against it (Parker, et al., 2006, and Sugerman, et al., 2010). Due to being unfamiliar with the symptoms of measles, it took a bit longer for those that got infected to seek professional help, and the disease was initially not contained properly, thus spreading the virus and causing the outbreak. A possible pattern of outbreak can be deduced using the recent data of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the spread of measles worldwide. It can be seen in the data surveillance that the places where measles are found to be endemic and have high rates are in the European Union, in East and Southeast Asia, as well as some parts of Africa (see figure 1). Figure 1. The spread of the measles virus from endemic places such as Europe to places where it is said to have been eradicated by vaccination (WHO, 2012). The blue circles indicate the places that the three studies indicated the measles virus got imported to, while the yellow arrows


Community Health Nursing Tasks Community Health Nursing Tasks A. Selected Communicable Disease (Measles) Three studies regarding the outbreak of measles in certain areas are to be discussed. The three studies concurred that the outbreaks are caused by two interacting factors: the introduction of measles by unknowingly-infected patients into an area where measles are not endemic; and the presence of highly-susceptible people, which are the under-vaccinated or unvaccinated members of the population (Parker, et al., 2006, Sugerman, et al., 2010, and van den Hof, et al., 2001)…
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