ive reliable data prior to the study, the researcher uses equivalent comparison groups to rule out the effect of unusual scores in a study (Kerr & Wood, 2010).
A research instrument is referred to as a systematic and standardized tool for collection of data. It involves all types of research questionnaires as well as standardized scales (Tran, 2009). According to Tran, the instrument to be used in a study must be appropriate, valid as well as reliable.The research instruments to be used in addressing secondhand smoke (SHS) on children will include questionnaires and standardized scales. The research instruments are essential in carrying out a study; they aid in the collection of data that is used in answering the research question of a given study (Tran, 2009).
There are many factors that researchers considers before making a final decision on which data collection tool to use in carrying out their study. These factors include the usability, reliability, and validity of the instrument. Before drafting a questionnaire and using a standardized scale in carrying out a study on reducing SHS on children, a researcher carries out a systematic review of the literature in order to determine if the instrument will measure what it is required to measure and if the results of the study provided by the research tool are valid. The researcher also evaluates whether the use of the instrument would result in the same results if the study were repeated. A researcher first determines if the instrument he or she is about to use measures a construct as intended before selecting the instrument for a study. The researcher also checks whether the constructs in the instrument identified matches the construct conceptually defined in the study. Additionally, the researcher finds out if the instrument can be used in the public domain before using it in the study (Blankenship, 2009).
The California Health Interview Survey on rates of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke shows (SHS) that