Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an infection that attacks the lung in the human being who is in breathing support of machines in hospitals (Datta, 2013). VAP affects persons who are critically ill in intensive care units. VAP is a primary source of ever-growing illness…
Ventilator is a machine assembled mechanically to transmit breathable air in and out of lungs. The ventilator provides a mechanism of air exchange for patients with breathing difficulties or unable to breath. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a type of pneumonia that occurs after forty-eight hours when patients have received mechanical ventilation and intubated. Pneumonia is ranked second in most common nosocomial disease in the critically ill patients. More than 86% of nosocomial pneumonias are related to mechanical ventilation hence termed as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
The infection has major causes believed to be Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Datta, 2013). According to the study, that was done from April 1, 2006 to January 31, 2008 at Radius Special Hospital in USA; it showed that for every twenty-three cases of VAP infection, 19 casualties were associated with 157 LTACH. The above translates to an infection rate of 14.6%, which corresponded to 1.67 cases in 1000 ventilator days. Microbial data proves that 91% of the patients who reported to the hospital had VAP infection.
Patients with critically conditions which are intubated for more than 24 hours are at 6-21 times risk to develop VAP in USA. Mortality and morbidity associated with the VAP development are high, with the rates of mortality, which ranges from 20-41% (Datta, 2013). VAP increases critical care, ventilator days and hospital length of stay. There are two ways of managing VAP. One is based on semiquantitative or nonquantitative cultures and clinical criteria. The other utilizes quantitative measures of the respiratory specimens.
The principal organisms responsible for the VAP infection are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae. Etiologic agents are differing according to the patient’s population in an intensive care unit, prior antimicrobial ...
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According to the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), “hospital-acquired infections, are the most common complication of hospital care, resulting in 1.7 million infections and 99,000 deaths each year” (2009). These infections are acquired by patients in a healthcare facility, while they are undergoing treatment for another medical condition.
An informed application of the provisions of the caring theory developed by Kristen M. Swanson could help in reducing and mitigating the impacts of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The theory supplies the structural and theoretical approaches that might help in combating the nosocomial infection.
Recently, the rise of the infection rates raised an alarm in the medical field. They have caused a high mortality rate in a number of nations, which affects the population growth of the affected countries. In addition, the cost of
(2011). The primary objective of the article is to establish how the ratio of patients to nurses (PNR) affects patients’ risk of getting ventilator-linked pneumonia. The study utilizes data from a previous study, which took place in 27 intensive care
The pneumonia associated with ventilation is under observation to prevent it from further affecting the patients. Various strategies are in place to reduce the exposure of the bacteria and the time a patient stays on the mechanical ventilation. The bacteria spread very
at different exposure levels.One of the recent afflictions cindered onto the pneumonia epidemic is the, mechanical cause that has been also rifled on the scheme of causative agents. In this case, it is not a great deal of the bacterial or larval causing pathogen but is the side
As the report declares a semi-upright posture in those that are in ventilated areas is recommenced to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. VAP is a common intensive care that is recommended to reduce the infection. There are arguments that have been risen that ventilator-associated pneumonia is able to reduce the risk of obtaining pneumonia.
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