Infection Control - Pandemic Planning Infection Control - Pandemic Planning Introduction Since the outbreak of SARS in 2003, the Federal government and other global interest groups like World Health Organization have been giving specific focus to the concept of pandemic planning…
The 2009-H1N1or swine flu was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in 2009 (CDC, 2010). This influenza A (H1N1) virus was the most major cause of human flu in 2009. As Patel, Panchal, Chavda, Modiya, Marvaniya, Modi, and Sen (2010) note, some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and they result in a small percent of all flu-like illness and a small percent of all seasonal flu. Other strains are endemic in pigs and birds. This paper will discuss effective pandemic planning for the management of an outbreak of H1N1 virus on a cruise ship with 1970 passengers and 734 crew on board. Infection Prevention and Control The UK’s National Infection Prevention and Control Framework describes extensive measures to combat the outbreak of future infectious diseases. This framework strongly recommends the active involvement of individuals, communities, healthcare authorities, national and local governments, and other care givers to address effective infection prevention and control so as to minimize the risk of infectious diseases that can endanger lives (NHS Professionals Infection Control Policy, 2010). There is a wide range of national policy guidelines such as The Health and Social Care Act (2008), Essential Steps to safe, clean care (2007), National Patient Safety Agency Revised Cleaning Manual (2009), and Winning Ways- Working together to reduce HCAI in England (2003) now available for the prevention of healthcare associated infection and communicable diseases (As cited in NHS South East Essex and NHS South West Essex, NHS, Infection Prevention & Control Team, 2011). These national policy guidelines suggest that the effective prevention and control of healthcare associated infections (HCAI) should be practiced in everyday life and applied by everyone on a continuous basis. As per the National Infection Prevention and Control Manual of Health Protection Scotland (2012), it is particularly important for communities to have awareness of the possibilities concerning an outbreak of pandemic diseases. This awareness is very vital to prevent the situations leading to diseases like swine flu and to treat the disease conditions effectively (NDMA, 2009). The framework specifically indicates that thoughtful staff engagement is paramount in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The prevention and control practices have to be initiated from the bottom line (local communities or regions) and spread to the national level. According to the NHS Infection Prevention and Control Policy (n. d.), Director of Infection Prevention and Control, Infection Prevention and Control Teams, general practitioners, nursing staff, domestic staff, all other staff groups, and all key healthcare institutions in the country are involved in the prevention of HCAI. Pandemic Planning Requirements The given case scenario is about the management of an outbreak of H1N1 virus on a cruise ship. A cruise ship is likely to carry passengers from different territories, sometimes from different countries. In addition, people cannot always stay away from the affected people while they are in a ship. Hence, the likelihood of spreading the disease will be high. In this situation, high awareness of the H1N1 flu is necessary to prevent the spread of this disease effectively. Hence, the medical team in the ship must inform the passengers and crew about the potential causes that would lead to spread of this infectious virus. The ...
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While some of these inhabit hot temperature places, others would only survive in ice cold conditions; while others survive with oxygen, others do not need oxygen for survival. According to McKinley Health Centre (2008), the micro organism that causes tuberculosis is referred to as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
These infections cause discomfort to the patient and hinder the recovery process and in severe cases may even cause death.As the cost of treatment also increases,the hospital acquired infections are actually a burden on the government as well.The extended stay of the patient results in the loss of work thereby depleting his/her financial resources.
The guide provided by the Department of Health and the Center for Disease Control is sufficient to address the pandemic condition: isolation/quarantine and treatment, social distancing both for children and adults, and information dissemination. These should be undertaken in tandem with community-based strategies particularly that featuring individual infection control measures.
The infection control strategies in the country seek to prevent conditions such as meningitis, respiratory tract infections, bloodbone diseases and the zoonotic ailments. To increase the prevention levels and to promote the need for a nationwide strategy, the ministry of health has adopted the western models which seek not only to address particular health concerns, but suggests proactive measures that can be adopted throughout the country.
SARS exhibited the economic damage possible if a major pandemic occurs during this era. Travel and tourism decreased to places with SARS outbreaks, which decreased income for the government of those areas. Businesses temporarily lost employees due to illness and permanently lost employees due to deaths.
The effects of infection on various parts of our human physique vary depending upon the microorganisms that attack and the state of resistivity of the immune system.According to Hans C J Gram, a Danish bacteriologist in 1800’s many bacterial infections are grouped either as G+ or G - depending on the type of bacteria that caused them.
The rapid spread of the viruses is favoured by the established modes of transmission, which are droplet and contact.
As no drug of choice is still available therefore, symptomatic treatment is provided to the patients, which consists of antibiotics, antiviral, corticosteroids, supplemental oxygen and immunoglobulons.
According to the discussion during influenza pandemic individuals falling ill commonly seek assistance from the health care provider that provides their normal health care needs. This means that health care providers must be prepared to face the extra rush of patients during an influenza pandemic.