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Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus - Case Study Example

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Metabolic syndrome has been characterized by insulin resistance which leads to hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia which usually causes abdominal obesity and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome is mostly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and caused by the pathophysiologic changes…
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Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

In early diabetes mellitus, it has been stated that the ability of muscles to take up and utilize glucose are decreased by more than 50 percent. A major effect of glucagon occurs next in the pathology when it stimulates the release of excessive glucose from the live. Also, it is known that fat tissues in the body are resistant to the effects of insulin and they release free fatty acids which are a major contributor in the development of insulin resistant (Byrne, 2011). The release of free fatty acids from dysfunctional fat cells leads to increased insulin resistance. Adipocytes also release certain chemical mediator which act on the pancreatic beta cells and deteriorate their function.
On the other hand it is a well-known fact that insulin has a lipolytic effect i.e. it causes breakdown of additional fatty tissues in the body and avoids accumulation of fat in the body. In type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who are already obese, insulin resistance develops over time and leads to deterioration of the function of beta cells of pancreas. Free fatty acids produced by adipocytes are transferred to the liver where they act on liver cells and inhibit the formation of glycogen from glucose. This results in the release of high levels of glucose from the liver. Early stages of the disease see high levels of insulin and high levels of blood glucose at the same time however the with decreased functional capacity of beta cells and their destruction in the course of the disease, blood levels of insulin decrease. This decrease in the levels of insulin leads to the accumulation of fat in the body and causes abdominal obesity (Byrne, 2011).
Microvascular changes are of profound importance in type 2 diabetes mellitus since they can lead to fatal consequences. One of the major causes behind these microvascular changes is continuous hypertension in type 2 diabetes. Hypertension is caused by loss of the ability of ... Read More
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