The chances of having COPD grow the more one smokes and the longer one has been smoking. This is because smoking inflames and irritates the lungs, which consequences in damaging. Over several years, the irritation steers to long-lasting variations in the lung. The partitions of the air-passage thicken and more secretion is generated. Injury to the subtle walls of the alveoli in the lungs results to emphysema and causes the lungs to lose their regular elasticity. The minor alveoli become damaged and contracted (Ellen & Kirkhorn, 2015). These variations results in the symptoms of coughing, breathing difficulty and phlegm related to COPD.
A patient named R.S. comprised of pathological variations in four different partitions of the lungs (pulmonary vasculature, lung parenchyma, peripheral airways and central airways), which are patchily available in R.S. with the COPD. Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor for R.S. patient with COPD, however, other inhaled toxic particles and gases may contribute. Therefore, treating tobacco use and dependence should be regarded as a primary and a speciﬁc intervention for R.S. condition. His smoking should be evaluated routinely whenever the patient avails himself to a healthcare facility and should be provided with the best opportunity to treat his condition. This results in an inﬂammatory reaction in the lungs, which is blown up in this particular patient who is a smoker and drives to the distinguishing pathological destruction of the lungs of the patient (Ellen & Kirkhorn, 2015).
Furthermore to lung inﬂammation, antiproteinases and an imbalance of proteinases in the lungs and oxidative stress are also essential in the pathogenesis of the patient. The variant pathogenic mechanisms generate the pathological variation which, subsequently, develop the following physiological defects in R.S patient: cilliary dysfunction and mucous hypersecretion; hyperinﬂation and airﬂow limitation; gas ...
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