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Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Pathophysiology Research Paper
Pages 6 (1506 words)
Compare and Contrast Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Introduction Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are chronic diseases of the lung and are together categorized under chronic pulmonary lung disease. Both the conditions contribute to significant morbidity and mortality.
The exact prevalence of these lung diseases across the globe is not well known. In this article, both the diseases with be discussed by comparing and contrasting with each other. Definitions Chronic bronchitis is defined clinically as a condition in which the patient suffers from expectorant cough for a minimum of 3 months for 2 consecutive years (Celli, 2008). The diagnosis is mainly through clinical presentation. On the other hand, emphysema is defined as a condition in which the patient has permanent and abnormal enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and associated with destruction of the walls without any obvious fibrosis (Celli, 2008). Chest radiography and pulmonary function tests are needed to arrive at the diagnosis. Pathophysiology In chronic bronchitis, there is typical inflammation of the bronchi. The endothelium is damaged because of which the mucociliary response is impaired. This leads to improper clearance of bacteria and mucus. Thus, inflammation, along with inadequate clearance of mucus contributes to obstruction in the disease. There is histopathological evidence of goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus plugging, smooth muscle hyperplasia and fibrosis. Alveolar attachments that are supportive are lost, the airways are deformed and the air lumens are narrowed. The capillary pulmonary bed is undamaged. ...
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