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The study is important in that the number of head injury casualties in casualty departments and minor units continues to rise. Early and proper emergency care is important as it helps to reduce potential disability and death risks. The objectives of this study were as follows; i. To identify the signs and symptoms (‘red flag mechanisms’) of severe head injury in children and adults ii. To establish levels of head injuries and categories of skull fractures iii. To establish the importance of computed tomography, after care following head injury and proper discharge. iv. To identify common causes of head injuries in children and adults v. To establish history taking techniques and their interrelations with inter-cerebral head damage and bleeding The study faces limitation due to possibility of researcher/ nurse bias when assessing injuries through history taking. The study has not provided a razor sharp research design but the flow of the report structure helps to determine it. Research design for any study involves specifying the methods and procedures under which the study will be conducted thus giving it direction. The study employed descriptive research design which involves describing a phenomenon with a view to answering some research or health questions. The data about a phenomenon is obtained through use of questionnaires or observational guides and monitoring equipment (Taylor, Kermode and Roberts, 2006). The study through the research design seeks to describe the three categories of head injuries that include minor, moderate and severe. Under each condition the research has tried to clearly establish the diagnostics tests that should be carried out. For example, the study has specified mechanisms for establishing severity of the injury, history taking steps and observational features to look for. In advanced cases of injury the study has documented how Computed Tomography (CT) scanning can be applied. The research design also provides a framework for understanding the anatomy of the skull bones, how to carry out physical examination and care and advice needed during and after treatment and discharge. The study has discussed two theoretical frameworks at length that are used in physical examination of casualties with head injuries. First, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) theoretical framework has been discussed. The framework is suitable as it helps to standardize the assessment levels of consciousness in patients with atraumatic head injuries. The framework also helps to predict severity of the injury and any intra-cerebral bleeding. Normally, the higher the score, the less is the risk. Second theoretical framework is Alert Voice Pain Unresponsive (AVPU) model used to measure consciousness level using AVPU tool. The method is easier and less time consuming. The tool helps to establish whether the patient is [A] Alert, responsive to [V]voice and [P]Pain or [U]unresponsive. Both frameworks support the research study in that GCS helps to establish severity of the injury in a more standardized manner and AVPU helps to establish consciousness level which is critical in deciding whether to do CT scanning. In summary, both frameworks help to classify the head injuries as minor, moderate or severe. AVPU has however been contested for its reliability to establish changes in consciousness. Organization of literature search is well done and flowing. The study starts by giving an introduction on head injuries and statistics in ...Show more


Nursing Research Critique: Emergency Care of Children and Adults with Head Injury Name: Class: Presented to: Date: Research Critique: Emergency Care of Children and Adults with Head Injury Purpose of the study The purpose of the study is to establish the appropriate emergency care of children and adults with head injuries…
Author : marcelonader
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