The number of health institutions is limited to 15.The health institutions will be of varying types and sizes within the United States. Sample 15 men and an equal number of women of varied age groups who will appear in emergency department exhibiting symptoms and signs that are normally associated with AMI. Common symptoms associated with AMI include chest pains and chest congestions, nausea, shortness of breath, sweating, palpitations and indigestion in women. A minimum follow up of six months for first subjects experiencing AMI for the first time and eight months for participants who have had a history of AMI. Tests and Measurements The study constructs can be measured through observation. Structured questionnaires will be administered to the patients and the health specialists who are attending to the patients to help and obtain data to support the study. A multivariable model that makes use of logistic regression will be applied to both clinical characteristics and patients demographics. Statement of the problem It is a widely acceptable fact that AMI is the number one killer condition in the USA. Despite ones disease, the eventual cause of death is usually heart failure as a result of AMI. Commonly known as heart attack, AMI is a result of blood supply interaction to a part of the heart the result of which is the death of heart cells. However, due to the confusion that larks within the symptoms of AMI and the symptoms of other chest health conditions, misdiagnosis has been a common occurrence. Patients suffering from basic chest complication exhibit similar symptoms to those suffering from AMI. Some of the similarities include chest pains, shortness in breath, congested chests, sweating and palpitations. This has made it easier for pharmacists, physicians and other care givers to give patients the wrong treatment leading to recurring conditions or eventual death of the affected patient. Previous research has shown that about 47% of deaths due to AMI occur outside the precincts of a hospital. This suggests inaction to early warning signs from people with heart conditions. If the symptoms can be separated among the two gender groups, it would make diagnosis of AMI simple and fast hence reducing the overall cost of treatment and eventually saving lives. Previous studies have found the signs and symptoms that are associated with AMI. The current evidence has been largely on co relational designs and quasi experiments using self report data. However, up to date, no study has conclusively assigned the signs and symptoms of AMI to a specific demographic group according to gender. A 2007 research report by the National Health Institute, (NIH), points out at women experiencing different physical symptoms or new symptoms all together for as long as three weeks or more before experiencing a case of AMI. The study involved over 500 women. However the symptoms reported were still similar to those of the men. 42.1% reported to experience shortness of breath, 47.8% complained of sleep disturbance and 70.6% experienced unusual fatigue (NIH,2007). However, similar symptoms are also common in men who have experienced AMI. I propose to study the signs and symptoms prevalence in people suffering from AMI and proceed to assign their popularity of occurrence to a particular gender group. The study will be conducted through observations,
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Presentation of Signs/Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Men and Women. Name: Georgia College and State University. Abstract. Objective To access the influence, impact and effect of gender in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction among the general population and to determine whether any notable presenting symptoms or signs are associated more weakly or strongly with acute myocardial infarction in men than in women…
The author explains that there are many predisposing factors to the higher number of MI cases. Some of these factors can be controlled while others cannot. These factors are; age, gender, positive family history of MI, high blood pressure, obesity, high levels of cholesterol, lack of physical activity, diabetes, stress, hypertension.
Plagues are deposits of cholesterol over the wall of the blood vessels. They are formed due to gradual deposition over a period of time (Alpert et al, 2000). Sometimes, plaques rupture and can result in blood clots within blood vessels. These clots block the blood vessel and result in sudden decrease of blood supply to the myocardium.
According to Hindu philosophy the one and only Supreme Almighty Power divided Himself into two forms, one was Shiva (masculine form) and another was Aadi (feminine form) and thus with formation of two genders the world became complete. Shiva stands for vigour and aggressiveness which is depicted in Indian classical dances whereas Aadi stands for delicacy endurance and optimum commitment.
An imbalance in this predisposes the heart muscle to ischemia, which means reduced blood flow. The tissue death as a result of ischemia occurs because of two reasons, reduced oxygen supply and the decreased delivery of nutrients, both of which are brought in by the flow of blood though the heart muscle.
Background. The state of the clinical practice and the detrimental effects of the disease on neonates are included in the main reasons for the need to review different empirical studies that are related to necrotizing enterocolitis specifically the early signs and symptoms.
The studies have found that the administration of streptokinase within 6 hours of acute myocardial infarction can reduce the mortality rate. As the time increases, the mortality rate increases and the effect f streptokinase is present in the body upto 48 hours.
These factors are; age, gender, positive family history of MI, high blood pressure, obesity, high levels of cholesterol, lack of physical activity, diabetes, stress, hypertension, increased serum triglycerides, excessive intake of saturated fats, salt and carbohydrates.
Various diagnostic features aid in determining MI; these include sustaining regional ST rise through ECG, cardiac enzyme studies etc. In developed nations like the United States, deaths from heart disease are more abundant than the mortality from cancer. One in five deaths in the United States is due to coronary heart attacks.
Women are more susceptible to depression as compared to men, and nearly twice the number of women are diagnosed with depression as compared to men (Kessler et al, 2005). Individuals in their early adulthood are most likely to show signs of depression, and there seems to be a strong relationship between stressful events and the onset of depression (Kessler et al, 2005).
The study expects to find that students who move for college display higher depressive symptoms as compared to those who do not; assuming that there are not other significant stressful events that may affect these scores. The study also expects to find that chronic stress also affects the extent to which an individual displays depressive symptoms; and that thigh levels of both types of stress will be associated with the highest scores on depression.
5 pages (1250 words)Research Paper
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