According to Nyblade et al (2003), AIDS was initially known as GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency) following the researchers’ notion that the disease was primarily limited to the gay community. This exposed the gay community to social stigma with most people suggesting that the only way to acquire the virus is through becoming or associating with the gay people. Even after the realization that the disease affects all sexual groupings, the stigma still remains the prominent obstacle towards prevention activities. Whether the stigma occurs in the form of homophobia across all populations or directed towards the gay community, it limits the HIV/AIDS prevention activities. AIDS Related Stigma This occurs in the form of discounting, discrediting, prejudice and discrimination towards people perceived to possess the disease. Logie et al (2013), associates the stigma with behaviors such as rejection and avoidance of people with HIV and AIDS as well as the affected, imposing compulsory testing without the consent of the victims, violence upon the victims and quarantine of persons with HIV/AIDS. Causes of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma The causes of the HIV related stigma are multiple and complex. The most crucial cause according to Mutalemwa et al (2009) is the possession of insufficient knowledge on HIV/AIDS, ignorance or fear towards the pandemic, moral judgments about people and assumptions related to their sexual behavior, use of illicit drugs and sex, fear of the perceived fate of the infected i.e. death, and the religious inclination that HIV/AIDS infection is a punishment from God. Types of Stigma Self-Stigma This refers to the process whereby people affected or infected with HIV/AIDS acquire the feelings of inferiority or unworthiness leading to attitudes such as self-hatred or inferiority (Mutalemwa et al, 2009). Self-stigma makes the victims lose their self esteem; making them to withdraw and isolate from the society. Self-stigma is highly intensive when the victim is diagnosed for the first time, possesses preconceived biased view towards HIV/AIDS, and has low self-esteem. Felt -stigma These are perceptions or feelings towards a certain group of people who are unique in relation to a certain respect e.g. people living with HIV/AIDS (Mutalemwa et al, 2009). Enacted Stigma These are the actions fuelled by the stigma, commonly referred to as discrimination. Effects of Social Stigma Stigma and discrimination discourages the willingness and the ability of the victims to adopt the necessary HIV/AIDS related preventive behaviors, seek treatment or providing support to people living with HIV/AIDS. Stigma would always prevent people from engaging in discussions related prevention such as safe sex or mother to child prevention (Logie et al, 2013). The utilization of the voluntary counseling and testing services is strained because people do not utilize them out of the fear of stigmatization. In severe instances, treatment services may also be withheld because of the notion that the victims are bound to die. Ethics Position Although new treatments and prevention programs have been established recently, successful prevention of HIV/AIDS can only be attained through fighting the social stigma. Effective prevention strategies are attained through the identification of the causes and type of stigma affecting the victims and applying the necessary measures necessary for overcoming the stigma towards the infected and affected people. Measures
HIV/AIDS: A Social Stigma Name Institution Date HIV/AIDS: A Social Stigma The global society has been attacked and severely affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Although enhanced research has identified the overall nature and structure of the disease, the virus continues to ravage the society (Scanlon and Vreeman, 2013)…
AIDS has virtually devastated the country. In 2009 alone, around 7000 people died from AIDS. The survival of the country is in jeopardy if some drastic steps are not taken. In Swaziland, It is estimated to have approximately 190,000 cases of HIV positive, which includes 15,000 children under the age of 15.
The issue which is linked to the disease is one which continues to be defined by the global issue as well as the needs which are a part of each community. Each of the programs which have been developed is specific to the need to assist in stopping the disease while helping those who are suffering from HIV or AIDS.
The immune system cannot therefore perform its primary role that is to protect the body against any invading infection. This disease is the Acquired Immune-deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Transmission of the disease from one individual to another occurs in several ways.
AIDS is pandemic and encompasses many epidemics of different subtypes. The leading factor for its multiplication and spread include sexual transmission and vertical transmission where the fetus gets the disease from the mother (Kallings, 2008).
Unlike the myths around, they are diseases that can infect anyone in spite of his or her race, gender, or age. Based on the period of discovery the diseases could be traced back in Africa from where it is believed to have developed and spread. They destroy the human immune system, specifically the CD4 bearing cells (CD4+ T cells and Macrophages).
At this time, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in some otherwise healthy homosexual men of Los Angeles and 26 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), again in 26 homosexual individuals both in New York and Los Angeles (Klimas et al., 2008).
Accordingly, health professionals are medically bound in providing interventions appropriate to patients with HIV infections; “a virtuous act...affirming the moral mission of health care” (“Legal and Ethical Issues,” 2005). Majority of obligations that
The author states that the Human Immuno Deficiency virus can remain in dead body for years without showing any symptoms of being visible. The last of stage of disease to be infected is AIDS as it requires almost 10 years span of time to get infected and finally reaching the development of the AIDS disease.
There is an exception to the ethical and legal obligation to confidentiality of HIV-related information. Doctors in the US are required to report AIDS and HIV infections to health authorities considering the benefits of this outweigh
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