Name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: The Nursing and Medical Management of Infants and Families Introduction Neonatal nursing refers to a sub-speciality of nursing that works with newborn infants born with diverse problems ranging from birth defects, prematurity, cardiac malformations, surgical problems, and infections…
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aid parents to be sensitive and responsive to their infant’s behaviour and enhance social interactions, confidence, and practical care giving; interventions directed at infants and families with diagnosed developmental delay or chronic illness (Shelton1999, p.118). In terms of limiting sensory overload/deprivation, NICU is perceived as overly stimulating relative to natural uterine environment. Minimizing the effects of the NICU, advocates of this approach suggest minimal handling and reduction of sensory input. The protection from possible hazard such as bright lighting is perceived to minimize the stress response and subsequently promote enhanced stability and tolerance of handling (Phillips 2003, p.84) The stress signals of the autonomic system entail aspects such as bowel strain, cough, sneeze, or yawn, tremor, twitch, or startle, respiratory pause, gasping, or sighing. Stress signals of the motor system encompass aspects such as hyper-flexion, protective manoeuvres, gape face, and fixed and stereotypical postures. Newborn developmental care yield significant outcome improvements indicated by fewer days on the ventilator, shorter hospital stay, early feeding success, a reduction within the number of complications, enhanced neuro-developmental outcomes during the initial eighteen months of life, and enhanced parent/infant bonding (Ricci and Kyle 2009, p.720). Advancements registered in neonatal intensive care have largely enhanced the survival rates of premature infants within the last two decades. It is essential to highlight the non-verbal language of the premature infant signs of stress such as colour changes, change in heart rate, yawning, open and gaping mouth, change in breathing rate and pattern, hiccupping, extended limbs, and squirming. The signs of stability encompass: stable colour, consistent heart rate, regular breathing pattern, hand on face, sucking, smiling, hand to mouth, relaxed tone and posture, and clear sleep states. The newborn period remain distinctively distinguished by the inseparable relationship between a mother and her infant. To facilitate the formation of an attachment to built, infants need to be close to their mothers to prompt their needs and mothers need to be close to respond to them. The process of reciprocity is adaptive as the mother discovers to recognize her infants’ cues, adapt to her behaviours and responses and satisfy the needs of her infant. Parents with an infant in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) experience numerous feelings of anxiety, depression, stress, and loss of control and they fluctuate between feelings of inclusion and exclusion relayed to the provision of healthcare (Ricci and Kyle 2009, p.721). Nursing interventions that facilitate positive psychosocial outcomes are necessary to minimize parental feelings of stress, loss of control, and anxiety. Mothers of infants requiring exceptional care start their experience parenthood in the unusual and intimidating environment of the environment of the ...
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