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NURS 401 NURSING CARE PLAN Part 1 Student Name: ____________________________________ Date submitted:_________ Patient Initials: S.B Age/Sex: 21 y.o. / Male Medical Diagnosis: Sickle cell anemia I. Etiology and Pathophysiology: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited autosomal recessive trait, more common in African American race, that results in morphologically and functionally abnormal red blood cells.
Specifically, limitation of tissue oxygenation directly due to a sluggish blood flow is the major pathophysiologic feature of sickle cell anemia. End- organ damage may result when tissue hypoxia is prolonged, which then can lead to death (Smeltzer & Bare, 2006, p. 886). II. Clinical Manifestations (Signs & Symptoms): Severity of the clinical manifestations depends largely on the proportion of RBCs that have sickled. That is, when more cells are sickled, the chances of thrombosis also increase, thus causing decreased oxygen supply to tissues and organs. Pain is one of the most common manifestations as hypoxic tissues generate lactic acid that easily irritates nerve endings and other pain receptors. When the heart tissue is involved, acute chest pain manifests and more commonly associated with tachycardia, fever, falling hemoglobin levels, and sometimes bilateral infiltrates seen on the chest x-ray. Since these cells have relatively shortened life- span, simultaneous hemolysis raises blood bilirubin level up to toxic levels. This is manifested as jaundice. Complications result from chronic hemolysis or thrombosis (Smeltzer & Bare, 2006, p. 887). III. ...
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