Parkinson's disease

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Name: Title: Course: Tutor: Date: Parkinson’s Disease Introduction Parkinson’s disease, PD is among the conditions grouped as motor system disorders. It is a non-fatal slowly progressing neurodegenerative brain disorder, which points out to the reason that people could live with it for over twenty years from the time of diagnosis as indicated by the National Parkinson Foundation, NPF (2013).


Damaging approximately 60% to 80% of the cells producing dopamine would cause its deficiency and consequently lead to the appearance of PD motor symptoms. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS (2013) refers to this brain cells impairment process as neurodegeneration. Prevalence and Incidence About 1 million people in the US suffer from PD with between 50,000 to 60,000 new cases being diagnosed annually. Worldwide, between 4 million and 6 million people suffer from PD (National Parkinson Foundation, 2013). It has been particularly noted to set in at age 50 to 65 with a lower incidence in African Americans as compared to the Caucasians and 3:2 for male to female ratio incidence (Talan, 2011). Motor Manifestation Years before the motor manifestation, people with PD experience non-motor symptoms including sleep disorders, loss of smell, hyposmia and constipation. The Braak’s hypothesis cited by the NPF (2013) observes its earliest signs in the medulla, particularly the olfactory bulb which controls the sense of smell. It would then gradually progress to the cortex and substantia. Notwithstanding, the four motor symptoms cited by NFP (2013) are cardinal in PD: postural instability, slowness of movement, rigidity and tremor. ...
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