Name: Title: Course: Tutor: Date: Parkinson’s Disease Introduction Parkinson’s disease, PD is among the conditions grouped as motor system disorders. It is a non-fatal slowly progressing neurodegenerative brain disorder, which points out to the reason that people could live with it for over twenty years from the time of diagnosis as indicated by the National Parkinson Foundation, NPF (2013)…
Damaging approximately 60% to 80% of the cells producing dopamine would cause its deficiency and consequently lead to the appearance of PD motor symptoms. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS (2013) refers to this brain cells impairment process as neurodegeneration. Prevalence and Incidence About 1 million people in the US suffer from PD with between 50,000 to 60,000 new cases being diagnosed annually. Worldwide, between 4 million and 6 million people suffer from PD (National Parkinson Foundation, 2013). It has been particularly noted to set in at age 50 to 65 with a lower incidence in African Americans as compared to the Caucasians and 3:2 for male to female ratio incidence (Talan, 2011). Motor Manifestation Years before the motor manifestation, people with PD experience non-motor symptoms including sleep disorders, loss of smell, hyposmia and constipation. The Braak’s hypothesis cited by the NPF (2013) observes its earliest signs in the medulla, particularly the olfactory bulb which controls the sense of smell. It would then gradually progress to the cortex and substantia. Notwithstanding, the four motor symptoms cited by NFP (2013) are cardinal in PD: postural instability, slowness of movement, rigidity and tremor. The well-known symptom of tremor has been referred to as rest tremor by NINDS (2013) as it becomes maximal on rested limbs and disappears with sleep or voluntary movement. It begins with a single leg or arm and later becomes bilateral. The tremors have a frequency of between 4 and 6 Hz. Secondly, the slowness of movement referred to as bradykinesia by NFP (2013) relates to difficulties in the whole movement process: planning, initiation and execution. This early manifestation hinders simultaneous and sequential movement performance indicated by problems related with performance of fine motor controlled tasks like sewing, writing and dressing up. The magnitude would be determined by one’s emotional state or activity. Rigidity would be manifested by stiffness of the limb and resistance to movement due to excessive continuous muscle contraction or muscle tone. This could be uniform or ratchet referred to as lead-pipe and cogwheel rigidity respectively. It could be accompanied by pain. Whereas in the early stages it affects the shoulder and neck muscles, it later progresses to the whole body. Finally, the late stages of the disease exhibits impaired balance causing frequent falls and bone fractures due to postural instability. It would be experienced by 40% of the patients. Talan (2011) adds posture and gait disturbances like festination to the list of these motor manifestations. Diagnosis and Detection Initial diagnosis requires the identification of at least two of these four motor manifestations (NPF, 2013). Bedside examination by a neurologist remains the most basic diagnostic tool for suspect patients. To aid this diagnosis, emergent imaging modalities including PET and DAT scans would be performed by a neuroimaging expert with DATscan playing a critical role of differentiating PD from other essential tremors but cannot indicate the PD subtype. Also to aid in accurate diagnosis would be the need for information on physical and medical examination and also medication history to ascertain the absence of medication that causes symptoms similar to those of PD. The ...
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“Parkinson'S Disease Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/nursing/94757-parkinson-s-disease.
The earliest known record of the study of Parkinson’s Disease is mentioned in James Parkinson’s “Essay on the Shaking Palsy”. The article describes the most common features of the disease which remain as the standard by which other types of parkinsonism are compared.
This essay focuses not only on disease itself, but also uses statistics and real life examples, such as Mr. Adms's case to analyze the topic of parkinsons disease. The researcher also analyzes symtoms associated with Parkinson’s disease, such as resting tremors, muscle rigidity and bradykinesia are the three main symptoms and medication Mr. Adams has used.
According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that the pathology of Parkinson’s disease is complicated making the treatment and control of the disease a complex task. The complexity of the disease has made it almost impossible for researchers to settle for a single approach to treating and controlling the disease.
Also, I did not see cites for the "figures" you mention in the paper so I presume you have these "figures" to add to the paper. I cannot guarantee the document to be plagiarism free because you did not have quotation marks around areas that you took directly from other sources, however, with cites in place, this should not be an issue.
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the loss of striatal dopamine (DA) as a result of degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in sunstantia nigra, thus, produces progressive disability.
The current medications which are used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s are Amantadine and Levodopa, which are 2 of several medications to alleviate the symptoms associated with the disease.
The drug known as Amantadine is relatively common as a
s, such as tremor, flexed posture, impaired postural reflexes, bearing characterized by forward leaning, a mask like facial expression, and changes in handwriting. With the progression of the disease and consequent neuro-degeneration, patients may be unable to move (Alexi,
Despite many studies conducted about the disease, the cause of it is unknown. It is known that the mutation of genes in the family will likely to pass it on to the next generation. Factors like toxins, smoking, and vitamin E deficiency is shown to play a role in its prevalence to as the brain and the nervous systems are sensitive to their presence.
Its symptoms include tremors or trembling of the limbs and face while at rest; muscle stiffness/rigidity; slowing of movements or motor actions (Bradykinesia); and impaired coordination or imbalance. Patients