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Russell Case Study Report - Essay Example

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Russell Case Study Report

The highly specialised pathways of dopamine in the brain may influence a variety of behaviour and thoughts. Paranoid thinking or psychotic symptoms which are symptoms of schizophrenia could also be experienced with high levels of dopamine in the brain. When the brain recognises that there is excessive dopamine, symptoms which are schizophrenic appear. Schizophrenic patients also have more dopamine receptors than people without it (Barkus et al., 2007). Glutamate is also associated with schizophrenia. It has a major role in the forming and encoding of memory. It is also thought to have a function in learning. When glutamate receptors are blocked, for instance, when one takes PCP, there is reported paranoia that is also a symptom of schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients have been found to possess lower levels of glutamate compared to normal people. The two neurotransmitters interaction is said to be at the core of schizophrenia since production of many dopamine receptors affect the glutamate receptors by blocking them and thus reducing their action (Spencer et al., 2009). The dopamine hypothesis is generally the best explanation for the cause of schizophrenia at the neurotransmitter level. It is the most etiologic theory in psychotherapy. Its proposal that certain pathways of dopamine are overactive in schizophrenia could be true because when one takes drugs that increase dopamine, they induce positive symptoms, but when the drugs that block its receptors are taken, they reduce the positive symptoms. In other words, the experiences and behaviours associated with schizophrenia could be fully made clear by the transformations of dopamine function in the brain (Ven, 2006). Auditory hallucinations could be said to be false perception of sound or experiencing internal voices and noises that do not originate from the external world and are seen to be separate from the normal brain processes. The individuals suffering from the hallucinations are extremely convinced of the objective reality of the experience. The auditory hallucinations are disturbing, not intentional and very intrusive. Noticing it will depend on the insight of the patient since a person with insight will refrain from normal activities. This would make one notice a change in behaviour (Spencer et al., 2009). Auditory hallucinations may be experienced in the mind, on the surface of the body, through the ears or anywhere in external space. They also come in different frequencies as some may happen continuous throughout the day while others may happen monthly. Some hallucinations will come in whispers while others will come in shouting. They could come from a single source or from a number of sources depending on the feeling of the patient. The most common auditory hallucination consists of voices (Romme, 1998). The accents and intonations of the voices are basically different from that of the patient and they may be either male or female. Mostly the voices are more than one and come from close people to the patient. The patient can hear voices of close friends, family members or neighbours. The voices could also belong to imaginary characters such as God or the devil. Single words are mostly reported contrary to long clear full sentences (Romme, 1998). Patients may also experience hallucinations from other sounds such as music and animal sounds. It may also happen that a patient will only hear the voices or suffer the hallucinations ... Read More
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