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Bipolar Disorder Outline Introduction Bipolar disorder was distinguished from schizophrenia for the first time in early 1900s and American Psychiatric Association (APA) presented an early conceptualization of the disorder in 1952. Bipolar disorder is characterized by two extreme mood swings of mania and depression and also can be noticed in sleep patterns, energy levels, activity, attention and impulsivity.


Cause of bipolar disorder is not known but genetic and environmental conditions may give rise to the disorder and its course. Environmental factors may include substance abuse, medical conditions (e.g. thyroid fluctuation), stressful lie events, and life styles that are consistent with general sleep-wake cycles. PET imaging helps identify differences in brain activities of the people with the disorder. This and other biological researches have rendered better understanding of the causes of the disorder such as dysregulation (not like an epileptic seizure) of the brain cells responsible for regulation of emotions, circadian rhythms and behaviors resulting in the symptoms of the disorder (Goodwin & Jamison, 2007). Bipolar disorder now ranks one of the top ten disabling disorders in the world among working adults with significant socio economic impact (WHO, 2002), (Young, Rigney, Shaw, Emmas, & Thompson, 2011). Bipolar experience of the illness can vary among patients substantially. Such as, some patients with depression followed by hypomania while others, mania followed by depression. Still others with alternating episodes with no intervals of mood stability (euthymia). ...
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