Swanson’s Theory of Caring Institution: Name: Date: Introduction Swanson’s theory is derived from the practice and researches done by Dr. Kristen Swanson. The doctor’s focus has been majorly on pregnancy. It avails a platform that deals with miscarriages and the healing required for the family of the patient…
Clinical observations include temperature, blood pressure and pulses are normal. The model used in this context involves evaluating the caregiver’s attitude. They include being competent, meeting individual needs of the women and respecting their dignity. If proper care is given after a woman miscarries then she has the power to improve on her own. The scenario involves women who had early miscarries and those who had a late miscarriage. Nurses and midwives who care for these women are also considered in this situation. Swanson’s caring categories apply in this scenario that includes “Maintaining belief”, “knowing”, “being with”, “doing for” and “enabling” (Brier, 2008). The middle range caring theory The theory is built on the basic Swanson’s fundamental principles. These elements are the usual five that the doctor developed in her theory. The first developed by the doctor in 1991 element is referred to as “knowing” (Jansson & Adolfsson, 2011). It strives to understand an event in the way it has a meaning in another person’s life. It does not assume that one can know what the other feels or they way he or she is affected by the situation. Instead, it tries to understand and endeavor to take care of the person. The lives of the patients are important and the nurse is obliged to fully understand it. When a nurse embraces ‘knowing’, he or she develops empathy that is important for the care receiver. It encompasses observations, systematic research and prolonged clinical experience. The second process is ‘being with’ and it implies being available or with the woman. It implies stepping into her shoes, providing psychological, emotional and physical support (Krippendorff, 2004). It also involves effective communication and good listening skills. The midwife must display assertiveness, advocacy and competence to protect her interests. ‘Doing for’ process requires maintenance of both knowledge and skills (Adolfsson et al., 2004). It entails doing what the other person would do to themselves and is a practical side and art of the midwife profession. It can be described as comforting, being protective, anticipatory. Nurses should practice it with competency and use all the available skills. The other process is ‘enabling’. This model describes it as facilitation of an individual’s passage through transitions from unfamiliar events (Jansson & Adolfsson, 2011). It is also referred to as empowerment. To empower the women, nurses must give them choices and be fully informed of them. This enables them to control their decisions regarding pregnancy resulting to equal partnership when giving care. For the midwives to give informed choices, they must be aware of all evidence-based guidelines that are relevant to them (Brier, 2008). Finally yet importantly, ‘maintaining belief’ is the fifth process and entails fulfilling expectations using realities. However, it is only achieved if the expectations are real. Maintaining belief enables midwives “to know, be with and do for” (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009). This final process brings all other processes together thereby forming one whole process. Brier (2008) describes it as holding individuals in esteem; believing in the person’s ability to realize set goals. The goal is to have a normal birth that includes a healthy infant and a well-being mother. In the real world, great emotions are always achieved with the importance of birth. The ...
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Several caring theories have been developed to enhance and preserve caring; some of which are Watson's theory, Leininger's Theory, Roach's theory and Boykin's theory. Watson theory, proposed by Jean Watson, is basically philosophy of caring and science and examines relatedness of various aspects of nursing like human science, human experiences, human caring, phenomena and human processes.
She calls this caring attitude as composed of “carative” factors (from the word care) and is encapsulated in her seven major assumptions as contained in her theory of nursing. Furthermore, she elaborated on this theory in her ten “carative” factors that should serve as a guide in today's complex world of nursing.
From the University of Colorado, she earned her undergraduate degree in nursing and psychology, her master’s degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing, and continued to earn her Ph.D. in educational psychology and counseling. (Cara, 2003) Though she has always taken personal interest in the convalescence procedure of the patients under her supervision, but also she obtained command over various departments of the nursing profession by earning her Doctorate in the discipline.
In the contemporary age, a vast majority of the health care systems are going through a phase of administrative restructuring all over the world. This has potentially increased the risk of dehumanization of the care provided to the patients. Consideration of caring as the central objective of nursing requires the nurses to make an objective effort to secure patient care in their educational practices.
Watson’s Theory of Caring.
The last few decades witnessed an increasing emphasis on the role of nurses in the healthcare delivery system throughout the world. This increased responsibility brought increased workload and increased stress in the workplace.
Watson’s Caring Theory in Postpartum Disorder
Nursing theories explain phenomena relating to clinical practice particularly in providing care. It may define or describe concepts, health-related events and propose something about them either by explaining functions, relationships, associations and performance, among other related concepts (Rich, 2011, p.606).
Watson’s theory of human caring
Watson’s theory of human caring entails assisting the patient with human needs, establishing hope and interpersonal relations. The theory cultivates sensitivity for others and promotes a supportive environment that aids in the physical, social and spiritual development of the patient.
The scenario is of a nurse who is taking care of a 42 year old female patient. The patient suffered a fatal loss of her first child after undergoing amniocentesis to evaluate for trisomy 21. The patient gets very upset and says that it is her own fault that she lost the baby.
Arts and humanities are the major constituents of caring science. Caring science can also be divided into a world of unity where people are united by the spirit of offering assistance to each other and the fact of being in relation or the relations ontology.