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Concept Map Case Study- Cardiovascular System Name: Institution: Course name: Lecturer: Date due: Diagnosis From the given symptoms, this is a case of congestive heart failure in the patient secondary to a valvular dysfunction. The valvular dysfunction is brought about by the recurrent rheumatic fever the patient had in her twenties (Nixon, & American Heart Association, 2011).
This spread out to the both carotid arteries, leading to ventricular dysfunction. According to the case study, the patient is experiencing a low- pitched murmur due to the congestive heart failure. The patient had an extra S3 heart sound. This is due to murmur heard after the initial heart beat that ends ahead of the subsequent heart sound (Kouchoukos, 2012). Stress placed upon the patient’s heart The term which accurately describes the stress placed upon the patient’s heart is increased after load. This term refers to the increased cardiac output. The dysfunctional valve is unable to close fully thus permitting blood to seep back to the chamber it was recently. Continual seepage action may bring about a clot in the heart resulting to cases of stoke or pulmonary embolism. There is an increase of forward flow across the valve, and a decrease of the aortic valve area. The cardiac output determines the discharge coefficients of the valve area. Pressure gradient is applied across the heart valves. The left ventricle is put into a lot of pressure as more vigor is needed to emit the blood via the tight valve. There is resistance to the blood flow; leading to stress upon the left ventricular. ...
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