Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancerous disease among the women of America. Studies show that every one in eight women has a likelihood of developing breast cancer. This cancer mainly begins its course in the breast tissue and there are two most common types of breast cancer: lobular and ductal carcinoma…
Other areas of the breast can also be affected, however, this is rare. Treatment will also vary considering the type of breast cancer and the stage it is in. One can find out if they are a victim to this disease by getting an examination by a physician, a biopsy, a mammography or an ultrasound test. Rates of breast cancer have risen over the years, however there are many women who also fight this disease and survive in America. Men can also suffer from this disease. (society, 2000) Causes of breast cancer The exact factor that causes breast cancer is yet to be pinpointed. Certain factors increase the probability of the cancer’s occurrence. Some can be controlled and modified in order to avoid the onset of the disease; whereas other factors cannot be controlled. There are some main reasons as to why it occurs; Family tree: having family members, especially closely related women in the family such as an aunt, a sister etc. who have breast cancer greatly increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Age: as a person grows older, the chances of breast cancer also increase. Life history: having cancer in one breast increases the likelihood of having cancer in the other breast in the future, or other different types of cancers in the same breast. Menstrual cycle: women with a cycle that started before twelve or ended before fifty five are more susceptible to this disease. Race: black women tend to have stronger potential to avoid the tumor than white women Breast tissue: women with a denser breast tissue as compared to others have a higher probability of developing breast cancer. Giving Birth: having no children or having children at a very late age can also increase the probability of breast cancer occurrence. Studies show that a breastfeeding mother for one or two years has a lesser probability of developing breast cancer. Weight: obese people have a greater probability of suffering from breast cancer than women who have an average body weight. Use of contraceptives: The use of oral contraceptives for about ten years or so increases the probability of breast cancer occurrence. Exercise: Exercise has been shown to lower the probability of breast cancer. Alcohol consumption: The rate of consumption of alcohol and the probability of developing breast cancer are directly proportional These are the risk factors that are associated in the development of cancer of the breast in women. Aspects such as age cannot be controlled, as one cannot stop aging, however other factors such as exercise, weight and alcohol consumption etc. can be controlled. (Majure, 2000) Signs, symptoms and diagnosis One of the most common symptoms of breast cancer is a mass or lump in the breast. Other symptoms include dimpling or swelling of the breast, nipple or breast pain, or discharge from the breast or redness. A healthcare provider can confirm whether these signs or symptoms point towards breast cancer. Mammograms are usually used to detect breast cancers. And women should at least at the age of forty get regular screen shots in order to prevent the disease or catch it at its earlier stages. A clinical breast exam, CBE, should also be conducted in women in their twenties or thirties in order to be aware of the changes that the breasts are undergoing as well as the early onset of the disease or possibility of the disease. A self-exam of the breast can also be done called a breast self-exam (BSE) by women especially those in their early ...
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(Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/other/10810-breast-cancer.
Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted modern lifestyle of living. It is found that modern ways of living and diet are one of the most important factors that increase the risk for breast cancer in countries with modern way of living.
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
Proceeding age, family history of breast cancer, and extended reproductive phase are the some major aspect related to this disease. Up to 10 percent of breast cancer in western countries like US, is due to strong genetic predisposition (Dixon, p.25). Doctors can detect breast cancer initially after approximately three years after menopause.
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some
Incidents of breast cancer are found more in white women in comparison to Hispanic, Asian or African-American women. The paper aims at exploring associated risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment processes and breast cancer prevention measures.
Several risk factors
numerous research studies regarding neoadjuvant treatment for persons affected by breast cancer, histological treatment effects in the lymph nodes and primary lesions are considerably associated with the diagnosis. Various diverse histological measures are presently employed to
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