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It will help in the employment of most effective treatments for rehabilitation of drug abusers. Keywords: Drugs, drug addiction, drug abusers, stress, relapse, reward. Drug Addiction The word “addiction” is derived from the “addicere” (a Latin verb), to bind or give an individual to one thing or another. It is generally employed in the field of drug to refer to compulsive, uncontrollable, or chronic drug use, to the level that an individual (an addict) may continue the drug forever. It typically implies a strong physical and psychological dependence that results in a withdrawal syndrome on ceasing the drug administration. Drug addiction entails instinctive search to utilize a substance, in spite of the latent negative psychological, physical and social consequences (Brown, 2003). The drug intake generates satisfaction and an intuitive drive that necessitates continuous or periodic drug to avoid the anxiety and distress and provide pleasure (Moal and Koob, 2007). Types of Drug use Recent analyses have focused on the following three kinds of drug use (1) Controlled, occasional, or social use. (2) Abusive or harmful use, and (3) Drug addiction. Clinically, the irregular but controlled exposure to a sedative drug is different from excessive drug use, lacking control over restraining drug intake, and the appearance of chronic obsessive drug-seeking that portrays addiction. One of the fundamental objectives of recent neurobiological research on addiction is to comprehend the neuroadaptive and neuropharmacological mechanisms within particular neurocircuits that arbitrates the transition in between controlled, occasional drug use and the failure to control behavior of drug-seeking and drug-taking that classifies chronic addiction (Moal and Koob, 2007). It is assumed that this transition corresponds to the channel from a normal to an allostatic state and consequently to a pathological one, i.e., a persistent and relapsing ailment. The critical nature of the dissimilarity between harmful abuse and addiction is illuminated by epidemiological studies that show that a very limited percentage of the users will become dependent or addict. Stages of Addiction Drug-taking commences with collective drug-taking and severe reinforcement and occasionally, for a few individuals, then progresses in a pattern of growing compulsive use and lastly to withdrawal, dependence, and protracted abstinence. Since relapse is possible to occur, thus the cycle repeats (Robinson & Berridge, 2003). Characteristics of Drug Addiction Drug addiction, also termed as substance dependence is a persistent relapsing disorder usually characterized by (1) Urge to search for and take the drug (2) Loss of ability to control on limiting the drug administration (3) Development of negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, dysphoria, irritability) when drugs are avoided (Moal and Koob, 2007). Who are drug abusers? Drug abusers may be defined as individuals who are obsessive in the drug administration behavior that they undermine other important aspects of life, like relationships, parenting, performing normal life activities, moral values etc. (Butler, 2009,). Reasons behind drug abuse Like various psychological disorders, substance dependence or drug addiction depends on numerous things. However two main factors are: Genes: Once the drug use has been initiated, the hereditary factors like genes ...Show more


Drug Addiction Katherine Mooney Liberty University Abstract Drug addiction engages instinctively seeking to employ a substance, despite of the latent negative physical, social and psychological consequences. It may be categorized as a chronic relapsing illness…
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