Critical Review on Mental Disorders Name Institution Module 1 A) Key features of social phobia. Hint: What are the main concerns that any given individual with this diagnosis may present? Key features of social phobia are noted by a persistent and marked performance, or social fear occurrences, that may be accompanied by embarrassment…
In many cases, the performance or social situation is not used though sometimes it is considered with horror. For individuals who have not attained 18 years of age, there is persistence of the disorder for six or more months before its diagnosis. This disorder must trigger clinical distress that is vital in the occupational, social, or other significant functioning areas. Social phobia is not due to abuse of substance, medication, or medical condition. The disorder also involves excessive worry, or self-consciousness on what others think of the victim (Turner et al., 2002). The victim of the disorder is always afraid of being judged, shamed, or ridiculed by others, hence absence of oneself in social situations, incidence or prevalence, nature or course of social phobia, as well as the related social and economic burden from a local and global perspective. Studies based on communities have made it clear in their reports that social phobia can be a lifetime issue. The prevalence ranges from 3% to 13%. Many individuals who suffer from the disorder fear speaking in public. A few of those suffering from the ailment also fear relating to strangers and meeting new people (Rutz, 2006). In outpatient hospitals, social phobia ranges from 10% to 20% of patients suffering from anxiety disorders. This disorder does not arise in situations of inpatient admissions. Social phobia starts in teenagers, which sometimes emerges from the history of childhood shyness, or social inhibition. Nevertheless, children experience its start in early stages of their childhood. Onset may at times follow a humiliating and stressful experience. Although other people do recover or improve from this disorder, it is always prolonged, and the course fluctuates with stressors of life. For instance, social phobia may decrease when a person with the disorder marries. Individuals suffering from social phobia may arise with issues, negative evaluation, and rejection or anti-criticism. Victims find it difficult to be assertive, and feel inferior or lowly placed in the society. These victims possess inadequate social skills that are always anxious. The victims may also underperform at school because of participation in class or avoiding classes. People suffering from the disorder do not perform at work because of being anxious. They also fear speaking in public to colleagues and authorities. These people have few relations; hence, they do not marry (Long, 2005). In the worst instances, the victims leave school, work, hang with unfulfilling friends and totally stay away from dating or refrain from their original family. B) Psychosocial and contextual factors that increase the likelihood of admission to an acute mental health setting (Hint: Consider case examples from your clinical placements and what the research literature informs about precipitating, and maintaining factors for any given individual with the mental health issue chosen). Although psychosocial and particularly behavioural interventions appear to be effective in the reduction of mental disorders, they do have negative effects. These include the following: they may be insufficient because their effects vary in different children, the cost is high in terms of time and resources, and there is minimal evidence on generalization, maintenance, implementing across domain and settings simultaneously to arrive at optimal effects (Fabiano & Pelham, 2002). As behavioural strategies need persistent and ...
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