Artificial Intelligence Name: Institution: Artificial Intelligence Introduction Artificial intelligence is a discipline in computer science that focuses on the creation of machines that have the capability of displaying human intelligence. The desire to create intelligent machines affected the nature of humans for a considerable time…
Researchers can create systems that understand human speech, compete with humans during games like chase and imitate human thought (Harris, 2010). Origin and evolution of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence traces its roots to the ancient-classical philosophers who described the human thinking process as a manipulation of mechanical symbols. This gave rise to the creation of a digital computer that was programmable in the 1940s. This machine was based on the conceptual core of mathematical logic. The success of this device acted as an inspiration to scientists and researchers to start engaging in serious discussions on the possibility of developing an electronic brain (Whitby, 2009). It is believed that artificial intelligence originated from proclamations and thoughts of the primordial Greek scientists and philosophers. The Egyptians then advanced it at around 800 B.C. The Egyptians constructed a statue of Amun, the great in the ancient city of Napata. This statue could move its arm and speak to onlookers. Although the statuette was not intelligent, it portrayed signs of intelligence that inspired the Egyptians (Harris, 2010). In the fifth century, Aristotle advanced what was considered as the foundation of artificial intelligence. He introduced a theory called the syllogistic logic that deduced the first formal reasoning system. Later on, other people such as Euclid, Ramon Lull and al-Khwarizmi came up with fresh developments (Whitby, 2009). Al-Khwarizmi invented algebra while Euclid introduced reasoning based on geometry. On his part, Ramon Lull invented a machine called Zairja. This could generate ideas in a mechanical and nonmathematical format. However, between 17th and 19th century, more ideas and descriptions were added to the thinking process. For instance, Descartes initiated the concepts that animals were just complex machines while Thomas Hobbes described reasoning as a process of reckoning. Gottfried Liebniz attempted to liken the human beings’ reasoning to algebraic calculations. He even developed the Liebniz Computer that could divide and multiply. George Boole who invented binary algebra further advanced use of mathematics to reason (Harris, 2010). The 20th century witnessed many advancements and revolutions with equally growing number of additional players in the industry (Lamb 1). The most significant invention of the robot was by Karel Capek in a play known as Rossum’s Universal Robots. The robots were portrayed as unconscious and mechanical beings who could work for humans as slaves (Harris, 2010). However, the most significant effort towards the advancement of artificial intelligence occurred in 1940 when the first electronic computer was invented. With the subsequent advancements in computer science and theory, artificial intelligence developed significantly (McCarthy 1). The leading brains in this field included Warren McCullon and Walter Pitts who sought to assign mathematical descriptions to the brains of humans. In 1955, Norbert Wiener proved that all the intelligent behaviors were feedback mechanisms’ derivatives (Whitby, 2009). The period between 1956 and 1979 was characterized by further advancements in artificial intelligence industry. Several research facilities on artificial intelligence were set up at Carnegie Mellon, MIT and Princeton. The administration of the US joined in during the 1960s and pressed for more developments on artificial in ...
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