Literature Review This research shows the effects of educated people in knowing how control their diabetes. Also, low income people are studied and how this relates to diabetes. Highly educated people are at the least risk of losing control of their diabetes (Kemper et al., 2005)…
This DSME program was made for people with low incomes and lack of diabetes knowledge so that they can be prevented from being diagnosed with diabetes (Kemper et al., 2005). This article discusses the increasing rate of diabetic patients hospitalized in New York State, and the effects on the number of people hospitalized with diabetes. The ages of these hospitalized diabetic patients are between 25 and 74 years old in New York City from 1993 to2000. The study measured and compared the rates of hospitalized diabetics from specific ZIP codes and persistent organic pollutant (POP) areas; an analytical data method was used in this article. The results were that patients in ZIP sites had better incomes, engaged in more physical activity, not as much use of smoking, and had better diets. Also, the hospitalization rate of diabetics influenced the ZIP codes sites, which raised the hospitalization rates of people with diabetes who came from POP sites and "other" (Kouznetsova et al., 2007). The research in "Fatigue in employees with diabetes: Its relation with work characteristics and diabetes-related burden" is about how work characteristics from the Job Demand-Control-Support model (JDCS) relate to fatigue and diabetes. The population used in this study was employees aged between 30 and 60 years old who have diabetes (type 1 and 2 diabetes); this study was taken from a diabetes clinic in the Netherlands. The job stress or pressure for the employees was measured through analytical data observation. The result was that diabetes symptoms have a huge effect on an employee’s fatigue levels (Weijman et al., 2003). Also, the less support that employees received in the work environment meant the greater fatigue problems that employees had. On the other hand, the study that affects gender and health showed the effects of gender roles and influence on health. Whereas women live longer than men, women get sicker more often than men (Bird and Fremont, 1991). This article discusses three health inequality models: the racial genetic model, lifestyle model, and socioeconomic status model. The use of these three models is to show health inequality for African-Americans and compare that with the healthcare that white Americans receive. The author discussed in detail about the healthcare differences for both ethnic groups. Next, the author listed all the major health problems and provided statistics to show racial inequality; it has been mentioned in other research that inequality in healthcare derives from the inequality in health insurance (Quesnel-Vallee, 2004). Finally, the author presented and discussed the social structural model, or what he called the alternative model (Dressler, 1993). The author used observational and analytical research for the population of African-Americans in terms of gender and age in the United States. He measured socioeconomic and health statuses to see whether there was a difference in diet, exercise, and consumption of alcohol and cigarettes for each ethnic group. Also, in this research the author was specific regarding darker skin colors of Americans (Dressler, 1993). For this study’s results, he found that the health of African-Americans health was on average poorer than white Americans. For health inequality, the author found that African-Americans had a higher likelihood of a major cause of mortality than white people; ...
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