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Name of student: Topic: Lecturer: Date of Presentation: Q1: How Robert Wright and Kaplan use history to make their arguments about globalization. In the article “Two Years Later, a Thousand Years Ago” by Robert Wright, globalization is explained in terms of historical events such as the 9/11 attacks…
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For Wright, globalization brings some order in the world while for Kaplan it is a source of chaos but both agree that it is not a new phenomenon as traces of it can be found in history. Kaplan and Wright view globalization as a growth in interdependence among nations enhanced by commerce and improved technology. The expansion of commerce began in the prehistoric period driven by improvements in transport, roads, wheels and boats. These improvements were meant for facilitating wars but when there was no fighting, they were used to do deals (Wright). Even today, trade is enhanced by improved transport and communication making it accessible to cross boarders and trade with other nations. The building of ships, planes, trucks, and railway has connected many countries to the rest of world thereby enhancing globalization. According to Kaplan, the geographical location of a country is vital in determining its success in commerce. America has been able to rise in the global scene due to advancement in transport and its strategic position where it can connect to the rest of the world. It can connect to Europe through the Atlantic Ocean, Asia through Pacific Ocean and other countries through the Indian Ocean. It is thus able to exchange with those countries through its shipping lines. Information technology has also been attributed to the spread of Globalization. According to Wright it started in early days when writing was discovered in Mesopotamia as a way of keeping records. It was later used in the form of contracts that enhanced international trade. The discovery of print also accelerated globalization. In Wright’s words, it makes it cheap to transmit information thus giving power to the powerless groups. He gives an example of the rise of Protestantism from the Roman Catholic Church that was facilitated by the emergence of print media in the 15th century. People like Martin Luther used the print to their advantage to spread ideas and attract masses. Today, information technology also helps to advance the terrorism ideals as people from all over the world watch news of terrorism activities through televisions, internet and other social media. The events of 9/11 attacks were broadcast all over the world and Osama bin Laden became a local name thus globalizing the world through media. Technology advancement has also resulted in development of nuclear weapons necessiting the governments to unite against such activities by forming a global security watch bodies. Globalization over time has led to both positive and negative consequences. According to Wright, globalization has led to expansion of governments thereby forming global governance. This is due to increasing interdependence among nations; what happens in one country affects other countries thus creating the need for a world body such as World Trade Organization to regulate commerce and trade. The United Nations is also a world body that ensures security among nations. America being a pertinent player in the global scene therefore has a duty to protect its interests and this makes it necessary for it to intervene in the affairs of other nations to ensure they are stable. This is due to the fact that if trading nations are unstable, then America will be affected due to interdependence. This explains America’s interest in ending Iraq war. Globalization also leads to growth of morality. According to Wri ... Read More
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