RF Integrated Circuits Wireless communications at RF are able to provide services to users during mobility, such as cell phones, pagers and broadcasting. The use of a high frequency carrier to produce a passband signal for transmission allows the implementation of smaller antennas, besides of an efficient management of the spectrum…
The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET or MOS) is a four terminal device that can operate in three different regions – cut-off, linear and saturation regions – that states the current it can supply depending on the voltages applied to those terminals (Rabaey 57). Static Complementary MOS (static CMOS) is the most widely used logic style, because it presents some important characteristics: low sensitivity to noise (robustness), good performance, low power consumption, availability in standard cell libraries, among others. Also, the BiCMOS technology has become a viable option for RF applications. The main challenge in the design of RF circuits for products is due to the little operation margins given by the constraints on power consumption and noise (ENZ 189). It is not simple to do the IC design in an environment that is mostly used for digital electronics by involving a RF part. It can be said that the RF parts of an IC do not interact properly with the digital parts, since there is a tendency of noise from one part getting into the other. One possible solution is to isolate the RF circuit by shielding it. The modeling of the MOS transistors for operating at RF should be able to accurately predict the performance of the circuits. ...
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Operational risk is a distinct class of risk different from credit and market risk and is a significant contributor to financial services risk profile. Various approaches have been used in measuring bank’s operational risk exposure.
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