Polybius, the Constitution of the Roman republic Description of the Roman state system makes the main part of the political treatise by Polybius. The Romans, according to Polybius, had three pure forms of government. All the functions were divided between the individual authorities are so equally that it was impossible, according to Polybius, to determine which system – monarchical, aristocratic or democratic – was there in Rome…
Polybius begins the analysis of separate magistrates with consuls. The consuls, when they are present in Rome, govern all the people and all the officers except the tribunes, they report to the Senate on all matters and enter the embassy to the Senate, oversee the execution of enactments, summon the national assembly, make proposals, execute orders, have unlimited authority in military affairs, may punish any person in the military camp and spend public funds at their discretion. The senate primarily administers the state treasury; in its jurisdiction are all crimes committed in Italy, it is responsible for the administration of embassies in countries outside of Italy; it decides issues of war and peace, receives the embassy. Polybius emphasizes that people do not participate at all in these events. Realizing that may give the impression that people can do nothing substantial, the author hastens to warn that this is a false opinion. He draws the reader’s attention to the fact that people have a very strong influence on the life of the Roman state, as in people’s hands is the right to reward and punish. From the viewpoint of Polybius these incentives determine people’s entire lives. ...
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