She seems to take little steps The newborn’s vision is clear up to approximately 12 inches. The startle reflex shows that hearing is normal; however, the baby is not yet able to relate what he sees and hears. Since, taste buds are not very mature, the baby is satisfied with the breast milk or formula, but he learns to develop taste as he grows older like in 2-3 months. Studies show that the sense of smell is also well developed. He responds to touch under root and grasp reflex. He has no set schedule of sleeping and waking, and will sleep most of the time waking after intervals for feedings. Role of Parents and Caregivers In understanding the patterns of attachment and cognitive development in infants and how families affect their development, the contributions of Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Erik Erikson (1902-1994) hold great importance. Newborns go through a number of cognitive stages in intellectual development (Piaget, as cited in Coon, 2009, p.112), and they learn to develop emotional attachment right from their infancy with the help of “a number of attributes that help them to maintain contact with others and do elicit caregiving” (Shaffer, 2009, p.142). Caregivers and the family play a very important role in infants’ emotional and cognitive development.