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Summaries - Essay Example

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Philosophy Name Institution Date Philosophy Qn1: Capitalism & Communism (Fairness, Rights, and a Feminist Perspective) Capitalism is centered an economic system that is based on private ownership. The private owners command and own the means of production and creation of goods or services with an aim of creating as much profit or income as possible…
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There is no safety net that ensures the society is not held hostage by a few individuals, and thus is not a fair system for those who are not able to make ends meet. This system satisfies the wishes and objectives of a few in the society who are able to manipulate their way up the social ladder. Feminists believe that the dismantling of the capitalist’s way of thinking will play a decisive role in liberating the underprivileged from oppression (Christian, 2011). Communism, on the other hand, is a revolutionary movement that creates a freer market, and classless, moneyless and stateless society. It is based upon common ownership of the means of production as principles that aim at establishing a social order. This brings together the social, political and economic ideologies. It is centered on the belief in the power of the people and pooling of resources and labor thereby encouraging collective ownership (Christian, 2011). It is a way of avoiding the exploitations that become prevalent through feudal systems. It brings the rights of the poor to the fore with each individual having a chance to exercise their rights. In this system the will of the people becomes the law. It equates all people while ensuring that everyone benefits from communal resources. Feminists see this as their liberation from the oppressive past as the communists built the foundation of the 1950’s and 1960’s liberation movements (Christian, 2011). Qn2: Karl Marx, communism & alienated labor Karl Marx believed in the need for the end of exploitation that was perpetuated by only a few individuals through the oppression of the rest in the society. He designed the communist way of thinking as a way of fighting the evils of capitalism and as a way of ending the status quo conflict (Christian, 2011). He believed communism was one best way of bringing people together and putting them in a position that would make it highly unlikely for humans to exploit fellow beings. Those with the private means of production would lose it to the community making it possible for the community to take over. Equity would prevail after oppression is done away with, which, in turn, would provide abundant opportunities with few limitations or barriers for people to achieve their goals. Each would give according to their abilities and receive according to their needs (Christian, 2011). The alienation of labor brought about by the class system would cease to exist as everyone would have a chance to provide for the communal needs. Workers will not be held captive by their bosses as they would become autonomous and self-realized human beings. Alienation made the workers express their social aspect through a production system that was unfairly owned and this meant that their goals would be directed by the highly privatized production system, and communism sought to break this ideology. Qn 3: Nietzsche and the Eternal Return The concept of the eternal return is based on speculation that the universe has been recurring and will continue to do so in a similar form. This process goes on for an infinite number of times within an infinite space. If time and space are infinite, then the world has had experiences that will be repeated over and over in an infinite proposition. Nietzsche posits that what has happened in the past will come to play again in the future. Thus, the cycle of the future emanates from the past cycles and this is a process that recurs more often ... Read More
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