Transparency generally refers to the way of protecting fairness and promoting what is commonly good or ethical. Transparency is a pro-ethical condition that enables or impairs other ethical practices or principles (The ACM Digital Library, 2012, p.1)…
Indeed, transparency is very significant in professional and working ethics where it reveals all actions, plans, motives, and data of individuals and organizations to the relevant stakeholders (Learn Well Resources, 2012, p.1). Where stakeholders may include shareholders of certain organizations the directors and management of such organizations should avail all information pertaining to the status of the organizations to enable the shareholders to make necessary decisions on the same. Additionally, transparency is a legal requirement that all organizations should adhere to enable the government make a financial follow up on public organizations. Lawrence Kohlberg is a scholar that concentrated on both psychology and philosophy. He put much emphasis on moral development and proposed a 6-stage theory of moral thinking that advances the Piaget’s theory on moral development. He relevantly interviewed both children and adolescents about moral dilemmas to deduce three levels of moral development classified in six stages. The three Kohlberg’s levels of moral development include pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, and post-conventional morality levels (Crain, 2010, p.18-20). Level1. Pre-Conventional Morality The first stage of this level is the obedience and punishment orientation stage. According to Kohlberg, this stage is common with young children though adults can also express their reasoning at this stage. Children in this case obey rules in response to consequences of punishment involved. They do not do things because they are right but only obeys what the authorities’ permits. They do not have a societal voice but term morality as an external command from the adults. The second stage of this level is the individualism and exchange stage. At this stage, children value actions in relation to how they satisfy individual interests and not necessarily their morality. They recognize that there are varieties of right things permitted by the authorities with the best option serving one's own interests. Again, they realize that punishment from authorities or adults is just a natural risk that one needs to avoid. As such, their voice is still isolated from that of the society, as they do not identify with members of society (Crain, 2010, p.19-22). Level 2. Conventional Morality This level entails stage three of moral development that is interpersonal relationships. At this level, individuals seek to live up to social expectations and roles. This clearly affects the interpersonal relationship in a society depending on the choices different people make. At this stage, teens see morality as the way people should live and behave as expected by the family and society. They regard morality as having good motives and interpersonal feelings like compassion, kindness, love, and trust. Stage 4 involves maintaining social order. At this stage, individuals tend to consider the entire society while making personal judgments. They aim at being responsible, following set rules, and respecting the authorities with an aim of maintaining social order. This stage boils down to one-to one relationship where one considers the others feelings and offers help where they can (Crain, 2010, p.22-27). Level 3. Post conventional Morality This level entails stage five of moral development that involves social contract and individual rights. At this stage, individuals seek to accommodate others different opinions, values, and beliefs. They agree on rational standards to apply in the society. They adopt the common belief where all are entitled to benefit from what they do. Universal Principles is the last stage of moral development according to Kohlberg. He based it on universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. This stage defines the ...
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The three levels are the preconventional, the conventional and the postconventional. The preconventional level is characterized by the cultural rules of good and bad, or right and wrong. The first stage is focused on “avoiding breaking rules that are backed by punishment, obedience for its own sake and avoiding the physical consequences of an action to persons and property” (Murray, 2008).
Moral Development Introduction Moral development is a critical topic in psychology, education and many more disciplines. Many psychologists have come up with theories to explain various concepts of moral development. Two psychologists who are famous for the theories they have advanced on moral development are; Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan.
Student’s Name: Instructor’s Name: Essay, English Literature (Classic and Modern) Date: Topic: The Moral Development of Tom Joad in the Grapes of Wrath Introduction Reformation and rehabilitation for an individual released from the prison is the best thing that can happen in life.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development in Thank You for Smoking (2005)
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development is a useful framework in understanding the spectrum of morality in Sacks and Reitman’s (2005) film, Thank You for Smoking. This paper uses Kohlberg’s stages to understand how people judge what is wrong and what is right in their own actions and the actions of others, which can differ sometimes.
It is evident from the conclusive interview that this man was in deed an addict of alcohol to an extent that he could not function without taking alcohol regardless of him being employed in the corporate world where he was a very senior person. He could wake up in the morning and instead of taking the usual routine, he headed straight to the bar.
The character of Huck Finn is a central image of Mark Twain's 'Adventures of Huckleberry Finn', whereas the image of Tom Sawyer plays the secondary role and helps to underline the moral development of Huck. In 'The adventures of Huckleberry Finn' the character of Huck is developed much more profoundly and all-round.
Domestic violence is not glamorous, nor should it be portrayed as such in movies, film, and TV. The reality of domestic violence is that it is a detriment to society and its members. Domestic violence affects the mind, body, and spirit of both the person being abused as well as the abuser.
The code of ethics in research ensures that it achieves its objective of not causing harm to the subject be bringing about positive change to the subject. The code of ethics must be followed regardless of whether one is using animal or human subjects.
This is particularly important if one is using human subjects like children.