“Breast Cancer” Introduction Cancer is known as malignant neoplasm, the hallmark characteristic involves uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Under normal conditions cells grow, divide and die, but in a genetic defect called mutation occur cancer cells leading to the formation of an abnormal DNA…
The Genesis of a Cancer Cell A normal cell turns into a cancer cell because of one or more mutations in its DNA which can be inherited or acquired. Mutation is sudden abrupt changes that occur in the genetic material i.e. the DNA of the cell. This genetic material is facilitated by various agents called mutagens. Mutagens can be either physical agents such as UV radiations, X-rays etc. or they could be some chemical agents which are capable of producing changes in the cell by reacting with cellular macromolecules. These chemical agents form bond with the cellular macromolecules, thereby alter their normal structures. If they combine with the genetic material, the peptide formation is affected. Thus, these mutagenic agents affect the normal well being of the cell and when such a defective cell replicates the cellular modification is also passed on. These cellular alterations may lead to cancer, where the carcinogenic agents (cancer causing) are capable of altering the cell division leading to the uncontrolled proliferation of the cell (Alberts, 2007; Chemical Carcinogens). ...
These epigenetic factors do not produce cancer by themselves but enhances the likelihood of genetic mutation(s) resulting in cancer (Katzang et al., 2009). These genetic changes are categorized as - A. The activation of proto-oncogenes to oncogenes: Proto-oncogenes are the normal genes present in the cells and are responsible for controlling cell division, cell differentiation and apoptosis. A triggering factor such as a virus or exposure to any carcinogen brings malignant changes in the cell. B. The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: A cell has the mechanism to protect itself from uncontrolled proliferation and tumor formation due to expression of genes called tumor suppressor genes. These genes possess the ability to suppress malignant changes and are also referred as antioncogenes. Mutation in proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes results in the proliferation of tumor. Thus, a loss of function of tumor suppressor genes can be the critical event in carcinogenesis (Rang et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009). More than 30 tumor suppressor genes as well as more than 100 dominant oncogenes have been found to be associated with various types of cancers (Rang et al., 2007). Characteristics of Cancer cells The genetic basis of cancer has been revealed through numerous animal models. The Cancer Genome Atlas aims at methodically differentiating the configurational source of cancer, through recognition of the genomic mutations linked with every cancer form. A corresponding progress and description forms the basis of understanding growth and external appearance of the cancer or tumor called the phenotype of the cancer, is essential for ...
Cite this document
(“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/other/9986-breast-cancer
(Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/other/9986-breast-cancer.
Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted modern lifestyle of living. It is found that modern ways of living and diet are one of the most important factors that increase the risk for breast cancer in countries with modern way of living.
Proceeding age, family history of breast cancer, and extended reproductive phase are the some major aspect related to this disease. Up to 10 percent of breast cancer in western countries like US, is due to strong genetic predisposition (Dixon, p.25). Doctors can detect breast cancer initially after approximately three years after menopause.
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some
Incidents of breast cancer are found more in white women in comparison to Hispanic, Asian or African-American women. The paper aims at exploring associated risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment processes and breast cancer prevention measures.
Several risk factors
numerous research studies regarding neoadjuvant treatment for persons affected by breast cancer, histological treatment effects in the lymph nodes and primary lesions are considerably associated with the diagnosis. Various diverse histological measures are presently employed to
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Breast Cancer for FREE!