The Learning process mostly depends on experience and leads to long-term changes in behaviour potential. Behaviour potential designates the possible behaviour of an individual, not actual behaviour. As opposed to short-term changes in behavior potential (caused e.g. by fatigue) learning implies long-term changes. As opposed to long-term changes caused by aging and development, learning implies changes related directly to experience. Major research traditions are behaviorism, Cognitivist (psychology) and self-regulated learning (Psychology of Learning 2005). Learning has to be periodically reinforced, so that knowledge will not eventually lose in that individual (Learning 2005). Example can be seen in infants and children. Imitation of a role model is a natural mechanism for infants and children, when learning from experience. Child's play is another method for learning by the example of other children, who naturally gain satisfaction by playing the role of teacher or mentor to a less-experienced child (Learning 2005). Learning by teaching, is a method of teaching which allows teachers to share the new lesson contents and let little groups prepare their part in order to teach this contents to the rest of the class (Learning 2005).
In education and psychology, learning theories help teachers understand the process of learning. There are two main perspectives in learning theories, constructivism and behaviorism (Learning Theory 2005). Other informal theories of education deal with more sensible components of the learning process. One of these deals with whether learning should take place as a building of concepts toward an overall idea, or the understanding of the overall idea with the details filled in later. Modern thinkers agree with the latter (Learning Theory 2005). Other concerns are the reasons of the drive for learning. To this end, many have split off from the mainstream holding that learning is a primarily self-taught thing, and that the ideal learning situation is one that is self-taught (Learning Theory 2005). According to this dogma, learning at its basic level is all self-taught, and classrooms should be dissolved because they do not fit the ideal representation of self-learning. Informal learning theory also concerns itself with book versus real-world experience learning. Many consider most schools essentially lacking in real-world experience learning (Learning Theory 2005).
Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the principle that, by reflecting on experiences, a person can construct his own knowledge of the world in which he lives. Each person generates his own "rules" and "mental models," which he will use to comprehend his experiences. Learning then become a process of adjusting mental models to accommodate new experiences (Constructivism 2001). Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge. In other words, "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences" (Ormrod 2003, p. 227). Constructivist