N.A.E.Y.C. stating Developmentally Active Practice brought forth 12 principles of Child Development and Learning as a guide for People who work with children (Bredekamp and Copple, 1997)
'Development 'denotes maturation of functions. It is related to the maturation and myelination of the nervous system and to the acquisition of a variety of skills for the optimal function of the individual.'[Ghai OP, Gupta P, Paul VK. 2003]
Growth and development is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Phenotype that is parental traits, Character of parents, Race, Sex, Biorhythm and maturation, genetic disorders like chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations are all genetically determined.
Environmental factors-Fetus grows in the maternal uterine environment. Maternal undernutrition, anaemia, maternal tobacco consumption go to decrease growth while nutritional supplements increases growth. Maternal intake of medicines like Thalidomide, antiepileptic drugs like valproate, and Rubella vaccination can cause congenital abnormalities.
After birth nutritional statu...
er birth nutritional status, exposure to chemicals, infections and infestations, trauma, maternal metabolic factors, social, emotional, and cultural factors all can influence the growth of the child.
Behavioural Development of the child - In the postnatal life the newborn lies in a helpless manner with disorganized activity. As he grows he acquires better coordination of motor activity and reacts to his environment, with willful manner. At an anticipated age with a difference of a few months, children attain maturity of different biological functions. This can be interpreted by Denver developmental screening tests which measures gross motor, fine motor and adaptive; personal, and social and language factors. Behavioural development of the child is dependent on a variety of mutually interactive factors such as heredity, biological integrity, physical, psychosocial and emotional stimuli. Prenatal maternal illness, bad obstetric history, perinatal factors, social factors, established diseases all can affect behavioural development.
Thus the catch phrase "Nature and Nurture' for roles of heredity and environment in human development originated in France, back in the 13th century.
Nature Theory - It is known for years that traits such as hair colour and eye colour are determined by specific genes encoded in each human cell. Proponents of Nature theory take it a step further to tell the more abstract traits like intelligence, personality, aggression, and sexual orientation are all encoded in an individual's DNA..
"1. The search for behavioural gene is the source of constant debate.
2. the most debated issue pertaining to nature theory is the occurrence of the 'gay gene' pointing to a genetic component to sexual orientation.
3. An April,1998 article of LIFE Magazine