Research on the other hand is a more long term longitudinal study based on foresight regarding future trends or events over a period of time. This is one of the most basic differences that makes journalism and research take on divergent roles.
The collection of data is crucial to both journalism and research. According to Sedlmeier et al (1989), research is not a copy of record, as opposed to journalism. Here, it may be seen that journalism acts as a record of facts on which public opinion is molded and set forth. Yet, research is based on longitudinal studies that depend on the careful selection of subjects as well as focus groups upon whom analysis is conducted for a logical conclusion.
To begin with, one has to understand research design in context of philosophy as a style of writing or expressing ideas. This has a nexus with positivism as well as interpretivism in understanding how knowledge is gathered and used. Johnson et al's text (2000) starts with a study of innate notions. This portion of the book is a study of the elements that lead to speculation and a subsequent formation of perspective. This points to positivism. Throughout this part, the authors have managed to hook the reader on to the idea that speculation is an element that must be used in very discreet doses as more of it can damage the practical side of things in one's mind. (Johnson et al, 2000) As a philosophical notion, this is an ideal that is true to writing. In writing, it is imperative to stick to a certain balance between factual information and a small amount of speculation. This holds on to people's imagination and memories. Therefore, in this part of the book, the authors have merely described a style of writing that has to do with organising ideas and information or interpretivism. This sets the stage for understanding and differentiating between epistemology and ontology.
Further into the book, one will find ideals that are connected with principles in the mind. The mind is an organ that churns out thoughts and expressions of the same. These expressions are a part of the basic mental setup of the person concerned. This quality, in turn, springs from an ability to form a successful marriage between imagination and the overall truth surrounding a person. Therefore, these principles work towards defining a certain kind of writing and research design that can be applied by any person for means of appropriate self expression. (Johnson et al, 2000)
The second part of the book is about Ideas, which relates to journalism rather than research. Journalism is a field where ideation is an important phase before one begins to actually put the ideas down on pen and paper. Where does this ideation happen' It happens during one's life experiences. These life experiences revolve around the garnering of values and ideals in life. One's writing often depicts the state of one's belief system. Thus, in describing ideas, Locke has managed to show what a person's preliminary research in writing is based on. This preliminary research comes from what is within oneself. (Locke, 2007)
Therefore, as far as data collection is concerned, positivism is the approach used by research, while interpretivism is the appr