People will always tend to group things together. The general rule is to include in one group animals, plants, objectives(Rubin & McNeil,1979) or ideas that have the same characteristics. People call this as CATEGORIZING(Goldstone,R.L,1994). We can also categorize animals as carnivores or flesh eating animals or plant eating animals.
Similarity and Categorizing are not dependent on each other but they complement each other.
How people categorize(Oakes, L, 2003) events & things depends on theories that they have learned. A fully clothed man jumping into a pool will be categorized as "drunk" because a normal diver will take off his suit in tie.
Some researchers say that there is no relation between theory derived categorization and similarity. In fact, conclusions say that children will closely categorize a man to a monkey than a worm due the closer physical features of the monkey and man. Children, even 3 yrs old, will make inferences(Keohane & King,1994) of animal properties using category labels such as dogs eat and move around and man eats and move around , therefore they are alive.
Children described and categorized a set of drawings based on their environmental background. The conclusions from experiments show that categorizations are highly biased by their environmental and educational backgrounds.
Cognition can not be complete without applying similarity rules and categorizing philosophies in the observation of things. Evidences show that categorization and similarity are not based on the exact similar data.
Categorization relies heavily on previous theories and they are more goal driven. ...