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The issue of interracial relations has always been among the most controversial and difficult problems in American society. Racial segregation has a long history in the US, beginning with slavery and evolving into racially separated housing, schooling, busses and trains.


Until the second decade of the last century, even white women were legally deprived of the political rights and in many states they could not enter certain occupational fields, such as law, journalism, and medicine (Danziger & Gottschalk, 1995).
Only in the second half of the 20th century the federal government, the Supreme Court, Republicans and Democrats, and various human rights organizations made attempts to implement systematic approach to resolve the problem of segregation in employment and education. Initially, several court decisions such as the 1954 Brown case (347 U.S. 483, 1954) reduced de jure discrimination in the US. The subsequent affirmative action policy in employment and education launched in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy's Executive Order number 10925 as the central axis of the US employment and educational policies required federal contractors and educational institutions to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are treated equally without regard to race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity was established to control and implement the new policy intended to reduce and eventually eliminate discrimination in American society.
Unfortunately, the results of these policies are highly controversial and incomplete at best: de facto segregation and discrimination persists in employment, education, m ...
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