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This means that laws of nature work with other events to act as forerunners that necessitate every occurrence. Soft determinism, also known as compatibilism, is the conviction that the ideas of determinism and free will are compatible (Loux 38). Therefore, one can believe in determinism and free will and still be logically consistent. Here, according to American philosopher William James, free will is the liberty to act according to one’s motivation. However, he also points out that an individual can do their will but cannot control what they will to do. On the other hand, hard determinism, also known as metaphysical determinism, agrees that determinism is true but not compatible to free will. Therefore, free will, according to hard determinism, is non-existent. Hard determinism positions itself relative to other determinism forms in which the future is necessitated in its entirety. Question Two Epistemology, also termed as the theory of knowledge, is a subdivision of philosophy that deals with the scope and nature of knowledge (Nelson 1). Epistemology examines the theory of the limits, nature and origin of knowledge by focusing on its meaning, acquisition and the degree to which an entity can possibly be known. Epistemology discusses three kinds of knowledge, which are “knowledge by acquaintance”, “knowledge how” and “knowledge that”. For example, it is mathematically “known that” 1+1=2, and people also “know how” to calculate sums. Then, there is the aspect of knowing an activity, a thing, a place or a person (Boyle 86). The disagreement between empiricism and rationalism is concerned with the extent to which people are dependent on sense experience in their effort to acquire knowledge. While empiricists opine that the definitive source of all knowledge and concepts is sense experience, rationalists hold that significant ways exist in which knowledge and concepts are acquired independently of sense experience (Duncan 611). In rationalism, the most significant knowledge draws from using reason. This, therefore, means that rationalism verifies a priori, or “prior knowledge” as most significant kind of knowledge. Both Spinoza and Descartes associated using reason with mathematics. They both believed in seeking metaphysical truths whose reliability can be likened to mathematics. There is a metaphysical tendency in rationalists, since they portray notions like essence and substance. Rationalism also agrees with theology, which can be seen in Spinoza’s and Descartes’ thought that the existence of God can rationally be demonstrated (Boyle 114). Empiricism, which is hostile to religion and metaphysics, aligns itself with natural sciences. Empiricism, therefore, believes that knowledge stems from experience, and any notion not based on experience is questionable. Empiricists like Hume, Berkeley and Locke do not believe in innate knowledge. They opine that it must be from experience, either from the five senses or reasoning through the brain (Duncan 610). The innate knowledge thesis states that there is knowledge of various truths in certain subject areas, say, S, as part of human rationale nature. However, empiricism about a certain subject does not agree with the analogous version of the innate knowledge thesis. Question Three Ethics is the discipline of moral righteousness of human acts as guided by the ...Show more
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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Philosophy Question One Metaphysics is a subdivision of philosophy mainly concerned with studying the fundamental constitution and structure of reality (Loux 9). The term literally implies that which comes after physics and refers to Aristotle’s dissertations…
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