Name Instructor Course Date Substance Dualism is Necessary for Beings to Have Free Will Substance dualism, Descartes most famous philosophical thought, is necessary for beings to have free will because it allows for the separation of minds from bodies (Calef); according to substance dualism, our minds and bodies are separate entities that can exist apart as two distinct entities…
Since the mind is not physical, it cannot be bound by physical laws that govern the body, thus, beings are free not only to do as they please, but also to do otherwise than they usually do. In this respect, responsible human actions are not related to mechanical causation as presupposed by materialism, the philosophical belief that humans are physical beings whose motions are bound by laws of physics (Wartick). A strong sense of free will is supported by dualism, unlike other philosophical thoughts such as materialism because, according to Descartes, humans have an infinite will to act involuntarily and to be held accountable for their actions, and an understanding capable of showing those clear and distinct perceptions. This paper proposes that substance duality is necessary for individuals to have a free will, not only to do as they please, but also to do contrary to their conventional ways by building a strong case for duality and disqualifying contrary opinion. Intentionality, often referred to as the ‘of-ness’ or ‘about-ness’ of mental states is undoubtedly the strongest argument in favor of dualism (“Case for dualism”); physical objects are spatial and have specific shapes unlike mental states such as thoughts and senses that are non-spatial. However, physical objects cannot be about or of each other because ‘about-ness’ or ‘of-ness’ is exclusively a mental phenomenon that is not within the physical realms, therefore, the lack of an equivalent of the intentionality phenomenon in the physical reality is a strong case for duality. On the contrary, mental states have ‘about-ness’ and ‘of-ness’; for instance, if one thinks that a certain painting is beautiful, then it means that the individual’s thought that the painting is beautiful is about the painting and cannot be reduced to any conceivable physical fact about the individual’s mind. Additionally, the fact that the individual’s thought that a painting is beautiful is about the painting cannot be identified with their disposition to react in certain ways like exclaiming and marveling verbally after viewing the painting. In this respect, an individual’s thinking is beyond the mere predisposition or tendency to act in certain ways because if that was not the case then it would automatically imply that individuals would never be aware of what they were thinking about until and after a corresponding behavior has been manifested physically. The implication for this intentionality argument, therefore, is that intentional mental states are purely holistic in nature and are not dependent on any physical manifestation, and because of its intentionality, the mind is very distinct from material non-mental things that are purely physical and mechanical in nature. In this respect, since no physical phenomenon has that aspect, intentionality is not a construct of the physical world, but a mental phenomenon; the absence of a counterpart feature in physical materialism proves that it is possible for the mental to exist separately, unaffected by the physical. Following this intentionality argument, dualism provides strong case for free will because then it implies that individuals have a limitless capacity to think on their own accord and to act on their own accord as well, voluntarily. The intentionality feature makes a great case for the argument that the mind and the body are purely ...
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Dualism has over the years been associated with several philosophers, thinkers and religious leaders. Prominent among these are Socrates, Plato, St. Augustine, the Hindu religion and Prophet Zoroaster. Each of these personalities and groups take dualism from a different perspective but they all seem to arrive at one major understanding that two all concepts of human existence, there are two forms.
This concept was coined in the era of metaphysics. By definition, moral dualism is a strong proven conviction in complement off everything from religion to conflict i.e. malevolent and compassionate are two opposite concepts concurring simultaneously in a subject of matter.
Dubbed the ‘mind-body problem,’ the topic has seen different refutations and defences and continues to be a subject of interest because it speaks to our common experiences. The concept of a mind that could exist outside of the body has been the most common interpretation of his words from ‘Meditations.’ Thus the statement that “Descartes has unfairly been caricatured by many philosophers as a villain who sent us down the dead-end road of mind-body dualism” (Hoffman 4).
Descarte’s argument is presented in seven steps; he claims that by virtue of his ability to perceive something, then it must mean that the thing has been made by God and its existence corresponds with his vision (Rodriguez-Pereyra 70). Secondly, the fact that two objects can be perceived as distinct from each other means that God can make them mutually exclusive, if the two things are capable of existing apart from each other, whether or not the actually do, then they must be distinct.
The concept of dualism is not only fundamental in philosophy, but also affects our thoughts on science, religion and psychology: for example, if a convincing rejection of dualism can be formulated, the materialist approach of modern science will be vindicated.
Essentially, this means that the concept of dualism accepts and reinforces the existence of a creator, or the cause, that would have created other worldly objects. Hence, the concepts of yin and yan according to the Chinese philosophy
The former being is in itself conscious of its being while the latter is the external, not having any kind of mental properties.
As a substance dualist myself, I would like to argue that I am a thinking thing or a purely mental being. What is it
According to him, the physical and spiritual aspects are two incompatible substances that have found a way of ‘coexisting’ in the human body (“Cartesian Dualism: Interaction of the Mind and Body”).
Dualism can be looked at from two stances, as a
hard determinism, Libertarianism, and Compatibilism, I find the Compatibilism position most plausible. This paper gives a critical discussion of why Compatibilism position is the most plausible solution to the problem of evil as compared to the other two
He observes that various philosophers however have different ideas on what would make a thing a substance as per this definition. He says that while Leibniz, for instance, would only consider fundamental particles such as electrons as
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