David Armstrong, 'Universals as Attributes' from Universals: An Opinionated Introduction

David Armstrong,
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Name of Student Name of Professor Course Date of Paper Argument against David Armstrong’s ‘Universals as Attributes’ from “Universals: An Opinionated Introduction” David Armstrong’s Universals as Attributes hold a proposition that the universe exists and that once this postulate is accepted the proposition that they may have varying attributes at certain degrees.


As elements of particulars resemble closer with one another, identity becomes stronger; hence, two particulars become one and resemblance becomes an identity (109). In this paper, this argument is negated with the supposition that two different universes cannot be identical because they do not resemble completely as they have different elements. Armstrong’s Arguments Structural Universals Armstrong emphasizes in this idea that universals that resemble one another are complex universals and that they have common elements. These are also called structural universals. He further explains that they overlap due to common or identical parts. The more universals overlap, the more they resemble one another (120). Structural universals are considered to have parts according to Armstrong (122). These have non- metrological composition whereby it is possible that there are two can contain similar and simple elements. Hence, he redefines structural universals as having elements or constituents instead of parts. If this kind of universal has the appropriate parts, it they will overlap in a mereological manner. Chemical elements for instance overlap completely. Butane and isobutane can totally overlap because they have a similar element which is carbon (Pautz 110). ...
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