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Name Course Tutor Date Minds, Brains, and Programs Introduction The emergence of computers has been functionally and practical symbols of transformation and revolution of the world in terms of modernization. The emergence of robots was a controversial issue as many people thought that the reports would replace human beings in form of labor.


It is important to understand that human beings are responsible for building and assembling of computers. For this reason, it is important to distinguish between a strong artificial intelligence and a weak intelligence. One of such critics is John Searle who describes strong artificial intelligence with regard to the computer is that it is able to formulate and test hypothesis in a more rigorous and precise fashion with very minimal errors. However, Searle points out that the basis of the strength and precision of computer is not the brain but the programs, which have been installed in the computer. This means that computers have cognitive states, which are much stronger and accurate compared to that of a human being. A Turing test is the ability of the computer or a machine to give and express intelligent behavior, which is almost equivalent and is indistinguishable from human beings. Allan Turing who aimed at determining if computers can think developed this concept in 1950 (John R. Searle 54). In his test, he was not refereeing to the ability of the machines offering the right answers to the question but how the answers are closely linked to human response. The test therefore did not consider audio receptions but relied on text only channels. ...
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