All of which were important aspects in the moral determination of the will that would contrue an act as moral or ethical. Kant’s normative ethics posits that the best way to act morally is to act from duty with the consideration of the highest good. That is, acting through the moral determination of the will. Kant’s acting through the moral determination of will meant that the motivation of one’s action must be pursued with the good without condition which is intrinsically good by itself. He formulated his deontological ethics in a categorical imperative of doing good for the sake of good regardless of its consequence. The three propositions of moral determination of the will are as follows; Universal Law formulation which is to act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. This means that if one is to act good, that will should not be subjected to any condition or any physical constraints. Humanity or End in Itself formulation which posits to act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end. This meant the free will is a source of rational action. And that humanity, is not just a result of an action but also the motivation of such action and how the action is carried out. A logical free will should therefore be an end itself because an end is subjective that they needed to be pursued whereas, the rationale action is objective and therefore must be categorically pursued. Kingdom of Ends formulation is the integration of the first two laws that says all maxims as proceeding from our own [hypothetical] making of law ought to harmonize with a possible kingdom of ends. This meant an autonomous will is not subject to anything but it must bind itself to the first two laws to make it applicable to everybody that people by themselves are both a means and an end. In sum, Kingdom of Ends formulation meant that the end and the means must be harmonized to be good and this is applicable to all circumstances without exemption. Kant explained the etymology of the expression of his deontological ethics. According to Kant, imperatives imply what they just meant which are commands such as “wake up early”. Often they are hypothetical imperative because they only serve a specific objective or purpose such as “wake up early so you will not be later for work”. This imperative or command becomes categorical when it is applied universally and that the actions and decisions of individuals are to be judged solely by their motivations and that the consequences do not matter morally (as in the case of hypothetical imperative) neither the intended consequences nor the actual consequences matter morally; only the principle or rule we follow if we do the action matters morally. In simpler terms, this meant doing what is good regardless of consequence and that by doing is an end by itself. Thus, actions themselves become an end and this action should be a rational result in the exercise of freewill. In the example stated, categorical imperative dictates to “wake up” early because it is good to wake up early even without considering one’s need not to be late for work. Consistent to this, Kant’s categorical imperative states that every person has the duty to use and exercise his goodness/humanity as a means to an end. The application of Kant’s second law of categorical imper
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One of the most influential philosophers that has profound effect on the field of ethics is Immanuel Kant. His idea about normative ethics became a signpost to determine which course of action is moral and ethical in today’s modern world…
To shed light on the metaphysics of Morals, it is first important to study the context of the work. In this regard, Immanuel Kant and his background need to be discussed to locate the study within a framework. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher of the eighteenth century and his works mostly focus on philosophy and anthropology, with Metaphysics of Morals being one of his most dominant works.
The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is believed to be the first contribution of Immanuel Kant to moral philosophy. It analyses the motivation for human for his actions. Kant’s moral philosophy is based on the concepts of categorical imperatives which are introduced in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.
Then there is metaphysics, a completely different category that focuses solely on concepts as they apply to moral or physical experiences. It is often believed that moral responsibilities are only based on concepts of rationale, rather than anything pertaining to personality or culture.
Immanuel Kant in his work Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals seeks to develop a philosophy of morals contingent on rationality and pure reason. He attempts to do this by extrapolating the principles of morality from his three propositions, which in Kants terms serve to demonstrate how goodwill is formulated within a prescribed action.
This is emphasized by Kantian morality.
Immanuel Kant left behind a system of ethical philosophy, according to which an action which is both an end in itself and motivated by categorical imperative is the foundation of moral philosophy if moved by free elective will.
He rejected the supposedly objective accounts of the good for man –proposed by the perfectionist positions associated with Plato, Aristotle and much Christian ethics–, as well as the subjective conceptions
ourse on this matter quite appealing and consistent with the 18th century motto of enlightenment that states “Have courage to use your own reason” which according to Kant signifies the task of mankind to hold accountability for becoming enlightened. Pointing out certain
ord with which is obvious of and as a result does not depend upon the attainment of the object of the action but purely upon the norm of violation in accord with which the action is” (Kant and Allen, 34). This means that the real or the intended consequences of an action does
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