The paper closes with a snippet review of the criticisms to the theory and possible reactions to these criticisms. Ontology defines the nature of something while epistemology defines the knowledge of something. The epistemological basis of postmodernism demonstrated in this paper is evolutionary. One of the ontological standing of postmodernism elucidated in this paper is social constructivist. This ontological standing moves that the status of entities depends on their involvement or lack of involvement in discourse. It holds that it is only entities constructed or produced through discourse that are real (Baldwin et. al. 2004, p.31). Postmodernism also uses a realistic ontology that uses two realms; discursive and extra-discursive realms. Here, postmodernism postulates that entities can exist in either realm with respect to its relationship with discourse. According to this ontological standing, all entities start from the extra-discursive realism before moving into the discursive realm. The transition into discursive realm occurs when an entity becomes the subject of discourse. In the extra-discursive realism, entities exist as existents and changes into beings when they get into the discursive realm (Crowther & Green 2004, p. 44). Postmodernism believes that identifying an entity is equivalent to changing it from existent to being. It follows that nothing that can be said about existents until they get into the discursive realm. The following sections evaluate these ontological and epistemological assumptions of postmodernism, more so, in organizational studies. Post-modernity is an object of both scorn and celebration in both cultural colloquial speech and intellectual discourses. Its repeated usage and persistent controversies have made it take up several forms. The ambiguity that surrounds the term emanates from people’s diverse usage of the term so as to suite their intention. Typically, though, it denotes the historical period that succeeds modernity. Modernity describes the period between the sixteenth and mid twentieth century (Aritz & Walker 2012, p. 41). It emerged from the death of medieval ignorance and superstition, and the rise of reason and truth. There are a number of elements that characterize modernity. Commentators of postmodernism differ on the basis of their favored side of the proponents of postmodernism. There are postmodernists who welcome and affirm change, albeit there have been critics who observed that the appropriation of this stance is questionable. Other postmodernists are skeptical about change and seek to see the change that challenges modern rationality (Crowther & Green 2004, p.45). Clearly, it is not plausible to dichotomize modernism and postmodernism. Rather, it is apt to appreciate their co-existence in a constitutive relationship that is mutual. The two need each other so as to come out as coherent and distinct. Postmodernism reshapes almost all aspects of life including, work, social relations, politics, communication, education and warfare. The transition period between the twentieth and the twenty first century saw the emergence of several developments. Industrial capitalism declined and gave way to a global information-age economy. This came with an inexorable expansion and consolidation of markets. There were also innovations that resulted from telecommunication technologies and computing. These innovations improved the exploitation of temporary opportunities
Name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: Postmodernism Different people use the term, postmodernism, in different ways. Postmodernism explores the convoluted relationships of discourse, knowledge and power that result from the struggles between social groups…
A brief background and internal analysis of the company will be presented followed by a discussion on its HR strategy and corporate culture. This section is very necessary for understanding the underlying issues and major areas of improvement. Based on company analysis and literature reviews for OD frameworks and strategies, recommendations will be framed.
Since the concept of childhood and adulthood, the concept of adolescents has not always been understood as needed in history. The writer will explain the definition of childhood through time and it's transition into adulthood. It will be shown that adolescence has not always existed. The different theoretical perspectives of the concepts of young people and adolescence are recent developments as a result of the change of work ethics and family ethics .
The international relations (IR) study focuses on the different political aspects of the world majorly issues that relates to peace and war among and within societies. IR in the political economy is concerned with the political dimensions of development, trade, poverty and investment and these contribute to globalization.
The essay will also include issues such as ontology, and epistemology in identifying the strengths, weaknesses of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Several studies have been done in the field of health sciences to establish different aspects of health inequalities.
There are different ways in which managers conduct the management research. As management research is about knowledge production, so the focus in this practice is to produce knowledge at its best. In order to achieve this objective (producing optimum knowledge), managers keep the flexibility in the practice of management research, which induces new methods and techniques in the practice (Flick, 2009).
In contrast, quantitative methods are, in general, supported by the positivists’ paradigm, which characterizes that the world is made up of observable and measurable facts. Positivists assume that a fixed
and in the traditional English-using countries… The language now belongs to those who use it as their first language, and to those who use it as an additional language, whether in its standard form or in its localized forms” (Kachru & Smith,
This encompass is knowledge possible? What is the difference amid knowledge and belief? Even though, perception is common among people philosophers have not accepted it as a form of knowledge. Philosophers believe that intuition only provides guesses, but it