The Six Principles of Political Realism' by Hans Morgenthau.

The Six Principles of Political Realism
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Hans Morgenthau’s six principles of political realism comprise of the most significant statements of contemporary realism. Many generations of political scholars, practitioners of international relations and philosophers have nourished their concepts and opinions by these principles.


Morgenthau has been criticised by many on the basis of his indistinct use of language and unsatisfactory scientific rigor, however his successive revisions and updates resulted in the “Six principles of political realm” in the 1954 revision (Scheuerman). The principles depict Morgenthau’s own political struggle and insight and they have been used by most of the international scholars to describe the international politics since 1945. Morgenthau states in his first principle, “Political realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature” (Morgenthau). Morgenthau highlights that human nature does not change regardless of any attempts made to impose laws or policies against the human preferences. International politics can be applied only after the facts have been tested by rationale and reasoning. Otherwise they would be rejected by the laws of nature itself. For a theory to be accepted in reality, it has to contain both ascertaining facts which are given meaning through reason. ...
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