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Sociology and Modernity - Book Report/Review Example

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Sociology and Modernity

The main key for the eradication of inequality is education. His views made sociology the discipline of societal and individual progress by means of the spread of knowledge and its cultural dissemination. (Ward, 1994)
Sociology is known as the rigorous and scientific study of individual and community behavior in a given society. Sociology focuses on society. Anthropology focuses on man. However, these two disciplines are inherently intertwined and closely linked. The roots of sociology are entrenched in the soil of the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment discussed the natural philosophy of the human condition. The drive to improve the human condition shaped the self-conscious purposes of analyzing society. (Dentler, 2002)
Condorcet had an opportunity to witness the suffering of the people. However, their analyses were lacking. The first basic principle of the Enlightenment was toleration of man, irrespective of race, religion and ethnicity. The second one is freedom as opposed to feudal restraints to behavior. The third one is uniformity of human nature. The fourth one is secularism which emphasized that secular knowledge must be free from the constraints of religious orthodoxy. (Ward, 1994).
The nineteenth century started the move for a concrete analysis of society. The developments of Darwinian Theory became the main feature of the nineteenth century. ...
(Marsh and Keating, 2005)
Modernity
The industrial and democratic revolutions are sometimes seen as the social phenomena constituting modernity. (Wagner, 1994). The notion of modernity affirms, sociologically and historically, that there was a discontinuity in the discourses on human beings and society took place two centuries ago. This discursive rupture led to the establishment of the modern ideas for society and it established social and political views and conflicts.
Founding fathers (Marx, Durkheim, Weber)
The three pillars of sociology are Karl Heinrich Marx, Emile Durkheim and Weber. Marx was born in 1818. His father Heinrich was a devotee of Voltaire. It was at the University of Berlin that Marx studied Hegelian philosophy. Hegel's idealism and his evolutionary dialecticism flourished in the same manner that his religious foundation was being gradually eroded. Marx fused his idealism with the radical materialism of the philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach.
Max Weber (1864-1920) extended the thought of Hegel and Marx into new domains of study. His presented an argument against economic materialism. He discussed the structures of political authority, organizational bureaucracy, and value preferences in methodology. Weber was a social policy adviser, an advisor to eminent politicians, and an opponent of German foreign and military policies during World War I.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) was the precursor of the modern French school of sociology. His work, The Division of Labor in Society, analyzed the social factors that binds the social order. Durkheim's scholarship centered on anomie, social cohesion, social norms, and the formation and transmission of culture over time. His theories and methods of empirical ...Show more

Summary

The field of sociology was started by August Comte in 1820. The early sociological work was Condorcet's Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind. In this work, Condorcet represents humans as moving from savagery towards civility, social virtue, and happiness…
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