Sociology and Modernity

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The field of sociology was started by August Comte in 1820. The early sociological work was Condorcet's Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind. In this work, Condorcet represents humans as moving from savagery towards civility, social virtue, and happiness.


The main key for the eradication of inequality is education. His views made sociology the discipline of societal and individual progress by means of the spread of knowledge and its cultural dissemination. (Ward, 1994)
Sociology is known as the rigorous and scientific study of individual and community behavior in a given society. Sociology focuses on society. Anthropology focuses on man. However, these two disciplines are inherently intertwined and closely linked. The roots of sociology are entrenched in the soil of the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment discussed the natural philosophy of the human condition. The drive to improve the human condition shaped the self-conscious purposes of analyzing society. (Dentler, 2002)
Condorcet had an opportunity to witness the suffering of the people. However, their analyses were lacking. The first basic principle of the Enlightenment was toleration of man, irrespective of race, religion and ethnicity. The second one is freedom as opposed to feudal restraints to behavior. The third one is uniformity of human nature. The fourth one is secularism which emphasized that secular knowledge must be free from the constraints of religious orthodoxy. (Ward, 1994).
The nineteenth century started the move for a concrete analysis of society. The developments of Darwinian Theory became the main feature of the nineteenth century. ...
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