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Modern World Theories - Essay Example

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Modern World Theories

justice would be most required. Thus, such an effort is made in this discussion to comprehend three of the most prominent theories of the modern world. As a first step, let us understand them in their popular definitions to initiate the discussion. Liberalism, as opposed to Marxism and Neo-Conservatism, is a "political theory founded on the natural goodness of humans and the autonomy of the individual and favouring civil and political liberties, government by law with the consent of the governed, and protection from arbitrary authority [and] An economic theory in favour of laissez-faire, the free market, and the gold standard" (Liberalism. 2008).
Now, to understand another major modern theory, Marxism can be well defined as the "political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society's allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society" (Marxism. 2008).
Another major political philosophy that came out, mainly in the US, as a rejection of social liberalism and the New Left movements is the Neo- Conservatism which is difficult to be defined, yet may be understood as one that "refers to the political goals and ideology of the "new conservatives" in the United States, characterized by hawkish views on foreign policy and a lesser emphasis on social issues and minimal government than other strains of American conservatism" (Definition: Neoconservatism (United States). 2007). Now, to have a comprehensive idea of these philosophies, let us discuss them in detail.
Liberalism
In critical perspective, Liberalism, as opposed by the other political, cultural, social and economic theories of consideration, may be put in a high status in the modern context as it ensures maximum individual freedom in the democratic way of governments. Various characteristic features of the theory may be considered in favour of Liberalism. Among them the notable ones are the emphasis on individual freedom, opposition to the government regulation through the advocacy of free market, importance on the liberal government, democracy, and civil rights and the equality of opportunity to the individual. There so many values, elements, institutions, and other characteristics that buttress the great role of Liberalism. One of the primary considerations among them is its perspectives on human nature.
Liberalism, in its radical social form, has been the champion of human liberty and all its perspectives of human being concentrated on this ultimate concept of the liberals. Human beings, when they are adult, mature persons to enjoy the freedom and selection of things most suiting their growth and progress, were allowed the freedom without the intervention of the government. Unlike the classical liberals who consider the individuals as able to assume the ways of developing their life, modern liberals cling to the idea about human nature "that we are basically moved by impersonal forces and have no capacity to initiate any improvements in our lives. Any such improvement has to come from the outside, and government, with its concentrated and massive coercive power, is the most promising candidate to bring about such improvement" ...Show more

Summary

Critically evaluate and compare the theories: Liberalism, Marxism and Neo-Conservatism assessing in particular the perspective of each on human nature, the state, international institutions and order vs. justice.
Three of the most influential theories of the modern world which are much used and little understood are the theories of Liberalism, Marxism and Neo-Conservatism…
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